Interphase (Star Trek: TOS zine)
|Publisher:||Connie Faddis, (in 1986, T'Kuhtian Press had permission to copy and distribute these zines/parts of these zines)|
|Date(s):||July 1975 - May 1977|
|Fandom:||Star Trek: TOS|
|Click here for related articles on Fanlore.|
It was one of the first zines to feature art in color and was extremely influential in its quality, style, and format. Many fans consider Interphase the best gen fanzine of all time  and it is often mentioned for its high quality art reproduction and printing quality.
Old fans never die, they just go into... INTERPHASE.' What would a Star Trek zine be like if Ruth Berman, Connie Faddis, Anna Mary Hall, Jacqueline Lichtenberg and Eileen Roy (among others) all got together and did their things? You'd have a fistful of fun, packaged in an offset casualzine, containing: Ruth's poetry, Connie's art, Ann Mary's short story, 'The Hunted and the Hunters,' Jacqueline's 1968 ST script 'Remote Control,' Eileen's Kraith story, 'Bone's Vision,' a fold-out 'graphic trip' on Captain James T. Kirk, and hand-screened color cover and interior artwork. INTERPHASE should be available in July. Only 200 copies will be made, so send a SASE. 
Some Comments on its BeginningIn 1977, Interphase's creator,Connie Faddis, said:
Paula Smith had asked me why I both write and draw -- as though one medium weren't enough. That about says it. My imagination seems to work in several modes. One is the visual tableau mode: I find a visual image in my mind, composed of place (I'm very moved by the moods of places) and person(s). These get turned into drawings, often like the Fantasia art I've done in INTERPHASE, and have no particular story to go with them. Rather, they are germinal stories, frescoes lifted from the inside of my head. The other mode in which I fantasize most often is less serendipity and more drive. It moves like a film-strip in my mind, actors on a stage with some important (to me) statement to act out. The themes I write have very personal beginnings, and a lot of personal images and symbols. I look back over the five years of Trek fiction I've written and trace the places my mind traveled (the drug scene, psychotherapy, people's lib, private joys and betrayals, and so on) on its journey to where I am now and where I'm going next. Sometimes it's frightening; sometimes it's downright reassuring. INTERPHASE came out of "visions" too. There were few zines in 1974 that gave noticeable attention to graphics, layout, or strong dark artwork of the kind I'm often moved to do. There was very little literary experimentation (stylistic or thematic) going on, either. An offset, graphics-oriented zine with a taste towards freshness seemed a reasonable goal. Coeditorship of ENERGIZE! with Candy Silver fell through, so I began INTERPHASE. Today, there are a lot of fine zines printing good artwork, poetry and fiction. I feel comfortable, now, retiring INTERPHASE and reverting to the role of contributor. In a way, I've come full circle, still eager for another round. 
Interphase and How It Signaled the Beginning of an Impatience with Mimeo
Interphase set a high bar and set up fannish expectation for what could be created.A fan writes about the difference in cost between sf and media zines:
Another fan writes in Interstat that perhaps the bar Interphase set is now too high:The biggest difference is that most sf pubbers do their publishing as a hobby. That is, they foot the bill pretty much themselves... sf pubbers tend to use the cheapest method possible, that is, I see many more mimeo zines than offset. Media publishers, on the other hand, are much more concerned with how a zine looks and that requires fancy offset printing, metal plates, veloxes, and the works. I can recall a time in media fandom when there were plenty of mimeo zines, but when Connie Faddis published Interphase and showed zine editors what could be done, that spelled the writing on the wall for inexpensive methods of reproduction. 
[We] should write what his or her heart wants to, and have the right to publish it. Not everything looks like Interphase —not everyone has the talent, the time, or the money to do a major production; and in some ways everything should not look like Interphase. Phase was a beautiful, memorable fanzine, and Connie deserves a great deal of credit for producing those four issues. Phase also was, unfortunately, one of the instigators of the current "polished" look sought after in fanzines—almost pro—and the corresponding rise in prices, and I'm not sure that this is entirely a good thing. For one thing, it doesn't feel fannish, In a way it creates mistaken and somewhat unrealistic ideas in some people's minds—and leads eventually to letters like George's. I think his expectations of near-professional quality are unrealistically high, given that fandom is a hobby and a labor of love. And to imply that editors who do not meet these standards do not take care in their production is unfair. 
General Reviews and Reactions
This is absolutely ST's most beautiful fanzine, and rates excellent in all departments. It is a work of art. Around 120 pages, offset, sometimes silkscreened color. Numbers 1 and 2 are sold out; send an SASE to reserve a copy of #3, it will probably cost around $4.00, and worth every penny! 
Interphase is photo-offset with reduced print. It runs the gamut from satire to serious fiction and it is a refreshing change to read good, long stories... Interphase's lovingly silk-screened covers offer only a hint of the delights that lie within. This 'zine is the most visually beautiful of the Trek fzines I have yet run across and has consistently fine illos. The stories and poetry inside are also good... Its price -- somewhat over $4 for the third issue. 
Everyone wants to publish another 'Interphase' -- everyone, that is, except Connie Faddis. 
INTERPHASE is the most visually beautiful fanzine in STrekdom. It also features some of the best fiction and articles relating to the ST uni verses to have yet hit print. Some of ST's most outstanding authors and illustrators have been featured in 'PHASE: Faddis herself, Lichtenberg, Smith, Block, Berman, Miller,, [Gayle F], London, Moaven, Carleton, Siegrist, Nemeth, Aumerle, Walske, Marder, Hall, and the list goes on. Indeed, a complete listing of the contributors to 'PRASE reads like a WHO'S WHO of STAR TREK fandom. 
I just don't care for having stories presented [with a lot of art]. I keep thinking of all the printed words that could have gone into the space wasted by artwork (British fans don't go much for artwork, and... many fans over here rate Interphase fairly low in the scheme of zines because of the amount of artwork in it. 
On her first issue of Interphase, printed in 1975, Connie Faddis employed a method called silk-screening for her cover – a detailed, time-consuming project which only an accomplished artist like Connie would have the skill to pull off. But the rest of us settled for what we could learn and do more easily. Artistically, Interphase set the bar for all the zines that followed, in more ways than one. 
A groundbreaking fanzine, raising the bar for zine style and form, incorporating the finest content with innovative layout and printing methods (you gotta love those hand-silkscreened covers). 
"Remote Control" and One Origin of Kraith
While earlier stories in the Kraith Universe had been published in issues of T-Negative, the very first story, written in 1968, saw its print debut in Interphase. It was in script form and titled "Remote Control."From the author's introduction in Interphase:
This script was written for the Star Trek series in the late 1968, and unfortunately never got beyond the agent-seeking stage because the show was cancelled several weeks later. Remote Control was aimed not at the TV audience but at ST's creators. Even if read and rejected, it should have pointed out 'Logic is Beautiful' as a viable fiction premise. After Ruth Berman decided not to print RC [in T-Negative] in script format, I decided to offer her a 'Logic is Beautiful' story in narrative, and Kraith #1 was the result.
See more at Remote Control.
About the Calendar: Gayle F's DebutThe Special Calendar Supplement that came with issue #3 was many fans' first exposure to Gayle F's work:
The extra chunk of paper that fell out of the envelope... is the Special Calendar Supplement... Let me mention right here that the calendar is only available as part of the zine; it is not available separately. [Gayle F], the artist whose illustrations make the calendar so special, has been on the periphery of fandom for a while, but this is, I believe, her debut in a fanzine. Gayle is a multi-talented and remarkably imaginative person (you will probably be seeing her excellent fiction in zines soon, as well as her dynamic artwork), and it is with wide-eyed, 'goshwow' gratitude that I'd like to publicly her welcome to fanzine fandom. 
Less than a year later, permission was given to Lori Chapek-Carleton to photocopy issues of this zine to sell. In Warped Space #21, Chapek-Carleton writes:I don't plan (and never did) to reprint any issues of Interphase. Most reprinting is done for profit; I'm doing this for enjoyment. There are hassles involved in reprinting, too: copyright hassles over fiction may on the verge of becoming big ones. Another reason is that the silkscreen art can't be readily done again -- the stencils had to be destroyed at the end of each print run in order to free the screen for the next project. I don't want to get into xeroxing back issues, either; I'd prefer to put the time into the next, new issue. So, if you miss an issue that you want, the best that I can do is recommend that you contact a friend who has a copy, and borrow that. 
Interphase 1 and 2 reprinted xerox copies will be done sometime in December . I might have to weigh the copies and notify those of you who ordered copies of the postal rates and request that you send me out the postage costs before I mail out the copies, as I've received a couple hundred orders. For anyone interested in ordering xerox copies, Interphase 1 costs $5 and Interphase 2 costs $6. 
The reprints of issue #1, photocopied, were advertised in The Halkan Council #24 in April 1977 for $6.23/first class.In 1983, there was another push to do "authorized reprints" (format unclear) of at least the first issue of "Interphase." In Universal Translator, there was an ad from Ingrid Cross of Odyssey Press:
We have permission from Connie Faddis to do authorized reprints of 'Interphase.' We need to rent an original copy of 'Interphase' 1 in order to make a master. If you have one and can help us, please drop us a line -- no SASE necessary or call collect so we can negotiate a price to pay to rent your zine. 
Interphase 1 was published in July 1975 and has 99 pages. The front cover is by Connie Faddis, and the back cover is by Gee Moaven. The zine contains four stories and an art portfolio. Art by Deborah Collin, Connie Faddis, Amy Falkowitz, Phil Foglio, Elizabeth Marshall, Kathi Maynard, Diane McClaugherty, Gee Moaven.From the editorial -- regarding production:
From the editor -- regarding the story "Bones' Vision":I really don't know how these things get out of hand; this was supposed to be a MODEST zine, maybe 70 pages, nice artwork, good fiction and poetry. Pleasant. Personal CASUAL. And definitely not expensive. Some of you might remember ads for a zine, edited by Cindy Sampson and Kathy Anderson, to be called 'That Which Survives.' Alas it didn't. It never got to a printer. Faced with overwhelming obstacles, Cindy and Kathy generously offered 'Interphase' the pick of the materials that had been contributed to TWS. So, by round-about route, TWS brings you Jacqueline Lichtenberg's script, Becky Baggett's poems, Anna Mary Hall's Sulu cartoon, and P. Foglio's cartoon... A good deal of fun and fancy went into this issue, and a touch of experimentation. The Kirk Folio is an example, a little mixing-of-media, on several levels: The artwork was produced by combining offset printing (the black ink) with hand silk -screened overprinting (the colors); the accompanying written scenarios were even more of an experiment, writing snippets of a 'story' that doesn't exist, based solely on the visual content of each of folio illustrations... The writers say they enjoyed the challenge. Next issue, we may fool around with even stranger notions... Finally, I feel that apologies should go to the fans who ordered Interphase at the guestimate price of $2.25. Two dollars and eighty-five cents plus postage is outrageous, and I'm embarrassed to have to charge it, but the zine will not make a cent of profit....
EDITOR'S NOTE: If you aren't familiar with the Kraith Series (available from Carol Lynn [address redacted] send an SASE for information), some of this story's references will be a mystery. As briefly as possible, SPOCK is now married to LT. TANYA MINOS — also called T'ANIYEH — a human telepath raised on Vulcan in the Vulcan cultural tradition, Tsaichrani. Spock's previous wife, T'RRVEL, a full Vulcan, died during a vital Vulcan rite, the Affirmation of the Continuity. Spock, a Kaytaytikh, one of the specially gifted Vulcans who can conduct that rite, has adopted CAPTAIN KIRK as his brother and established a Ward-Lieger pact (with Spock as Liege) with him because Kirk is a reflexively-barriered telepath, whose repeated mindmelds with Spock have weakened his natural barriers. Prefacing this story, the ENTERPRISE is investigating a black star, which is having dangerous ESP effects on the entire crew. Spock's own scientific curiosity and lack of foresight have left the ship unable to use Warp drive to escape the star's effects, and he and SCOTTY battle time to devise and install various protective mechanisms with which to dive through the star's corona — the only escape route. Unfortunately, the star's influence obliterates Kirk's already weakened mental barriers and he goes into esper shock (spontaneous, uncontrollable mindmelding) , inadvertently dragging Tanya into a mindmeld with him which she cannot escape. Their minds, and their lives, are irretrievably linked. As this story opens, the dark star's influence is destroying a number of barriers, some of them not strictly telepathic. Suited up in pressure gear to counter act the corona's intense heat. Bones McCoy is one of the victims. . . .
- Theragin Derivative, editorial (2)
- Uhura's Dilemma" by Diane McClaugherty (4)
- Three Haiku for the Enterprise by Carrie Brennen (4)
- Yesterday, a poem by Rebecca Baggett (5)
- Bones' Vision by Eileen Roy (Kraith universe) (6)
- Elizabeth Marshall's Sehlat art (26)
- The Hunted and the Hunters by Anna Mary Hall (28) (reprinted in Archives #2)
- Moon, poem by Beth Robertson (40)
- Kirk Fantasia (Faddis encouraged authors to write stories about the art, a practice that became a fairly popular activity in fanzines for years afterwards. Interpretations by Ruth Berman, Carrie Brennan, Anna Mary Hall, Jacqueline Lichtenberg, and Shirley Maiewski) (41)
- Voyager, poem by Beth Robertson (47)
- Untitled Poem by Janice Scott (48)
- Tricorder Song, poem by Ruth Berman (48)
- So Be It, poem by Beth Robertson (49)
- Remote Control by Jacqueline Lichtenberg (Screenplay intended for the original series in 1968. Author notes that this was the progenitor of her Kraith series.) (50)
- Plomeek Soup, fanzine reviews by Beth Robertson (94) (One Trek Mind #2, Energize!, Rigel #1, Showcase #2, see those pages)
- Three Haiku for a Vulcan by Carrie Brennenn (96)
- Amok Time, poem by Rebecca Baggett (97)
- T'Pring to T'Pau (poem) by Ruth Berman (97)
- Acknowledgments and Errata (98)
inside art from issue #1, Connie Faddis, also the cover of Grup #4
Reactions and Reviews: Issue 1
See reactions and reviews for Remote Control.
See reactions and reviews for The Hunted and the Hunters.
See reactions and reviews for Bone's Vision.
[zine]: Several outstanding ST zines have appeared in the past year, and Interphase is definitely one of them. It's hard to say which is its most outstanding feature, the artwork or the fiction, because both are excellent. In format, it's very similar to Energize!. The first story, 'Bone's Vision,' is set in the Kraith universe and tells an alternate story to the situation in Kraith #5; 'Spock's Decision,' McCoy, under the influence of the black star, develops precognition and sees many possible futures. In one of them Tanya bears a daughter, an appealing tot who makes me wish that this future had prevailed and not the one Kraith projects. It's a complex and provocative story, and I enjoyed it very much. But I don't know how much sense it would make to someone who wasn't familiar with the Kraith series. 'The Hunted and the Hunters' is a treat for Sulu fans. Sulu is kidnapped by an alien tribe of reptile-like beings, learns to live as they do, and is accepted into the tribe. he becomes quite fond of his new brethren and has mixed feelings about being rescued. It's a good portrayal of an alien life form and culture, and an excellent characterization of Sulu. 'Remote Control' is a TV script written for ST before its cancellation. It concerns another Vulcan/human hybrid crewman, this one as anti-Vulcan as Spock is pro. Spock is finally able to break down his antipathy and show him there is some merit to his mixed heritage, while incidentally foiling a another Romulan plot in the process. I can't quite visualize it on the TV screen, but it's fun to read. The artwork in Interphase is exceptionally good, and plentiful (and probably accounts for the relatively high price) Most of the illustrations are by Connie Faddis but several other artists are represented, too. There's a Kirk folio in the center, consisting of several Kirk portraits by Connie, with interpretations by Ruth Berman, Carrie Brennan, Anna Mary Hall, Jacqueline Lichtenberg, and Shirley Maiewski. Some are in color. The readers are invited to send in their interpretation of the color illustration. There are quite a few poems in Interphase, including one by Ruth Berman which shows new insight into T'Pring's motives, and makes her actions a little more defensible. In summary, this zine is definitely worth getting. 
[zine]: The best written piece is 'The Hunted and the Hunters,' a Sulu story with Hall's usual excellent characterization. Also, in the ish is a Kraith story, 'Bone's Vision.' It is eminently readable, more particularly for a Kraith story. There're light poems by Ruth Berman, heavier ones by Beth Robertson, several indeed wonderful sehlats, one of Phil Foglio's lousier cartoons, even an early script... which not only gives us a clue as to which of the writers of |STLives was enamored with the word, 'effect,'  but it's still an outstanding fan example of the script medium well used. But the best feature is a development on the Kraith Portfolio of Energize!: the Fantasia. Being five depictions in ink and color of various aspects of one James T. Kirk. C. Faddis' illustrations are then made the bases for five short-shorts... This is something unique and of true fascination; here is a chance to compare and contrast the styles of several of the best trekwriters in town, and to see why they are the best. Besides, there are the illios themselves, haunting and hard. Folk art is seldom enough found, gang; you grab it when you can... IPH is worth the lauds, worth the critical abeyance, and worth the three bucks plus postage. 
[zine]: To start with, Interphase has a beautiful format and about the best art I've ever seen yet on a fanzine. Would you believe a two-color serigraphy cover and three more inside? There is a Kraith story by Eileen Roy that was good but not overly impressive as far as the way it was handled... too complex, trying to depict a telepathic conversation with words. The best story I think is Anna Mary Hall's 'The Hunted and the Hunters.' Just great as far as writing goes, a beautiful depiction of the aliens involved and their psychology, and a well-executed ending. It'd be hard to find one thing wrong with it. On an equal footing, quality-wise, with Ms. Hall's story is the Kirk folio. Connie explained she did five illos, and sent them to 5 different writers for their interpretations. I couldn't adequately describe it in print. Nice to see some really creative touches in this zine, I must say! The remainder of the zine is completed with a number of poems and art. Especially good is Elizabeth Marshall's selection of small cartoons and her Sehlat drawings. They're all precious. If there were 'Zine of the Year' awards, this would be a leading contender. A limited edition of only 200 copies was made for this zine, so that's warning enough. 
Interphase 2 was published in November 1975 and has 123 pages. It has art by Debbie Collin, Connie Faddis, Signe Landon, Elizabeth Marshall, Kathi Maynard, Monica Miller, Gee Moaven, Gennie Summers, and Anji Valenza. Monica Miller did the front cover, Connie Faddis did the inside front cover, and Gee Moaven did the back cover.
From the editorial:
Beginning this issue, material of adult interest (and vocabulary) will appear in this zine. There are nudes in a number of illustrations, off-color (but delightful!) limericks appear in of the the stories, and an incident of rape is a plot element in another. This does not mean that I'm turning Interphase into a porn-zine. It does that mean that human and alien sexualities will be given realistically (I hope) proportionate attention in the contents, when appropriate, and that appropriateness will be the judgment solely of the editor. Therefore, I will not knowingly sell (and please don't recommend) Interphase to prepubescent readers...
If you saw Interphase #1, you'll notice the dearth of silkscreen-colored interior art in #2 (though the cover of this ish was silkscreened by Monica Miller). Interior color had to go this time: you can't imagine how much work goes into hand-printing every sheet -- about four hours per color run, that that does not include stencil-cutting and clean-up time. By restricting the hand run art to the cover this time, it was possible to print more copies of this issue than the last (250 instead of 200), which would otherwise be an effort beyond human endurance. In partial compensation for less color, though, there is more art this time overall: four separate art portfolios and abundant illustrations to the two major pieces of fiction. Visual art is of utmost importance in Interphase, and I hope that the proportion will remain high -- after all, Star Trek is, very much, a visual adventure...I don't plan (and never did) to reprint any issues of Interphase. Most reprinting is done for profit; I'm doing this for enjoyment. There are hassles involved in reprinting, too: copyright hassles over fiction may on the verge of becoming big ones. Another reason is that the silkscreen art can't be readily done again -- the stencils had to be destroyed at the end of each print run in order to free the screen for the next project. I don't want to get into xeroxing back issues, either; I'd prefer to put the time into the next, new issue. So, if you miss an issue that you want, the best that I can do is recommend that you contact a friend who has a copy, and borrow that.
- Theragin Derivative (editorial) (2)
- Ni Var: Two Shore Leaves by Ruth Berman (6)
- Pre-Reform Vulcan Costumes (art) by Monica Miller (7)
- It's Their Fault by Signe Landon (poem) (13)
- Kirk's Challenge by Eileen Roy (parts 1 and 2) (14)
- Cartoons by Debbie Collin (40) (full-page art pieces really: Chekov's Wheel Lecture and Sulu as Robin Hood) (40)
- Respondents by Ruth Berman (poem) (42)
- What Henoch Did by Paula Smith [reprinted in Menagerie #9] (52)
- Creatures of the Vulcan Forge (art) by Elizabeth Marshall (57)
- That Left Unspoken by Barbara Letson (61)
- Commander by Ruth Berman (poem) (64)
- Uhura three adjectives (poem) by L.V. Vargas (65)
- Helmsman (poem) by L.V. Fargas (65)
- Christine Chapel: in singular (poem) by L.V. Fargas (65)
- Spock Fantasia, art by Signe Landon, prose and poetry interpretations: (67)
- Bequest by Paula Smith (69)
- Vermin by Eileen Roy (72)
- Event by Claire Gabriel (74)
- The Given One by D.T. Steiner (75)
- Elizabeth: Lyrical by Beth Robertson (poem) (80)
- Cartoon by Debbie Collin (82)
- Trial by Ordeal by Connie R. Faddis (reprinted in Computer Playback #5) (84)
- Cartoon by Debbie Collin (113)
- Interpretations of the art from the cover of issue #1, poetry and prose:
- Untitled by Eileen Roy (114)
- A Marvel in the Darkness by C.R. Meredith (114)
- The World Well Lost by D.T. Steiner (115)
- Untitled by L.V. Fargas (115)
- Spock Portfolio, art by Signe Landon
- Plomeek Soup (reviews: see those articles: Menagerie #6 and #7/8, Delta Triad #1, Grup #4, The Halkan Council, Furaha #1 and #2, ) (116)
- Acknowledgments and Next Ish (127)
Reactions and Reviews: Issue 2
See reactions and reviews for What Henoch Did.
See reactions and reviews for Trial by Ordeal.
[zine]: This is the second issue of what continues to be an excellent zine. There are two main fictional offerings this time, both of which are well-written. 'Kirk's Challenge' (parts I and II of five) describes Kirk's plight when two children, apparently his, suddenly appear and are put in his care This is a complex story, quite far afield from the traditional ST universe, but the children introduced will hold your interest. Faddis illos add to the reader's pleasure. In 'Trial by Ordeal,' C.R. Faddis movingly depicts the physical and mental sacrifices McCoy must make to save Spock's life. It's a get-McCoy story (with a little get-Spock) but the gore is kept in its place by the author's grasp of characterization so that the people come out on top, not the suffering. Appropriate illos by Kathi Maynard. But what this Interphase really features is abundant artwork in many styles. There are no less than four portfolios: Monica Miller's 'Pre-Reform Vulcan Costumes,' which unfortunately look as if suitable for any warrior culture; Elizabeth Marshall's (cuddly) 'Creatures of the Vulcan Forge.'; 'Mind Melds,' consisting of five Faddis illos including a striking one of Sulu communing with a leaf-plant; and the Spock Fantasia. Interpretations of Signe Landon's beautiful pen and ink Fantasia artwork are by Paula Smith, Eileen Roy, Claire Gabriel, and D.T. Steiner. One engaging illo is left for the readers to interpret. Interphase #2 has numerous other features, too many to list. Among the outstanding ones are Ruth Berman's 'Respondents,' a collection of six-letter poems; Paula Smith's delightful (ahem) raunchy tale, 'What Henoch Did,'; a Kirk and lost love short short, "That Left Unspoken,' by Barbara Letson, Beth Robertson in poetry, and the responses to last issue's cover. A very fine fanzine, with precise and artistic layout, Interphase #2 is highly recommended. 
[zine]: This particular issue of Interphase... suffers from a number of faults throughout, oblivious of the time, effort and talent put into it. The cover of this issue is the only silk-screened piece of artwork in the entire zine... It is a portrait of the 'Mirror, Mirror' universe Spock and 'our' Spock. The drawing is very cut-and-dry, as coloring book art might be, and the two-universe Spock play absolutely no role in any story inside. Together, the front and back covers are very unimpressive except for the excellent use of color on the front cover... Inside Interphase #2, there is a plethora of artwork, almost outweighing the body of fiction included... fortunately, the art is by and large, of superior quality.... Eileen Roy has the first major piece of fiction in this zine, consisting of the first two installments of a story for the Kraith series, called 'Kirk's Challenge.' In this story, Kirk finds that he has been left with the care of two children by a very mysterious woman Eileen leaves us totally in the air about. One of the children is (supposedly) Kirk's illegitimate son. Holy soap opera! I hear reverberating through the walls, yet no one, not Kirk, not Amanda, not even level-headed Sarek thinks to compare blood samples which may not prove, but can DISprove fatherhood beyond a shadow of a doubt. Kirk, however, and the reader, must accept the child and his sister as kismet. Kirk's son, Jai... actually walks away with almost all of the entire story. Being from one of the Denebian worlds Eileen constructs not only the boy's mannerisms but his thinking, doing almost as well as Ursula K. LeGuin does, but not so extensively... This story is leading up to something real pithy but parts 1 and 2 lead nowhere, and fast. The story is weak, all the characters except Jai are week, the ending is weak, and there's nothing at the end for you to hold onto until the next part comes along, and since Interphase is a twice-yearly publication its a LONG time to keep it in mind for a sequel... One excellent feature of this story, however, is the scratchboard illos that accompany each part of the story... Most of them are excellent... [some comments on the art]... Immediately following is what I consider the best piece of fiction in the entire zine. 'That Left Unspoken' is a very short story concerning Kirk and a past love. Despite the story's brevity, it is powerful and wonderfully written; an emotional and mental tour de force that could leave many a story weak in comparison.... Connie Faddis has a major piece of fiction in this issue, filling most of the latter pages. 'Trial by Ordeal' seems to be a bandwagon story more than anything else... The story, disappointing in contrast to Connie's others, doesn't diverge much from the Death Wish pattern. The basic plot is that a landing party, including Spock and McCoy, is captured in a raid from the hostile natives of a certain planet. After four months of waiting, the captain finally manages to save McCoy from the terrorists. The yeoman from the landing party is dead, and Spock is missing. The story is constructed so that we are seeing occasional flashbacks of the landing party's capture, and McCoy's ordeal including a number of scenes borrowed from the POW movies such as beatings, rapings, more beatings, a sweet little scene where McCoy becomes addicted, and finally more beatings. Gee -- I'm beginning to think you need a Star Trek barf bag to read fiction anymore... you might look for them in Lincoln Enterprises catalog #7. At any rate, it all turns out fine in the end but I just wasn't impressed. Throughout the story, Kirk plays a good captain and sits on his ship and wrings his hands. The other two main characters, McCoy and Spock, play out their dramatic roles in the flashbacks and return in time for the credits to roll by, just like a REAL Star Trek episode.... It all proved to be a little predictable and the flashbacks made the story a little hard to follow... by comparison to Connie's other works, this one is only fair at the very best. Following this is ANOTHER set of interpretations, this time there are interpretations of the cover of issue #1. Some of these are very good, but by this time the reader has been bombarded with three other art/interpretation portfolios and it gets a little redundant. The fanzine reviews are well written... No complaints here: a well-handled column. The major highlights of this issue are... the pieces of art. The illustrations in 'Kirk's Challenge' and those in 'Trial by Ordeal' are by and large, excellent. The Portfolios are well-done... The front and back covers, although well-designed and laid-out, are both a mite two-dimensional and lacking that je ne sais quoi, thus making them a misleading indication of the art inside. If you are looking for fiction in a fanzine, then Barbara Letson's story is the only dynamite piece gracing this issue, but it's only three pages long and many not make this issue worth the price. It all boils down to too much art or too many portfolios and not enough well-constructed fan fiction. It is as well produced as Interphase #1, but weak by contrast. Yet compared with other zines of the genre, it still ranks as excellent and is worth sending in a SASE to reserve info on Interphase #3. 
[zine]: One of the best zines around, Interphase has earned the respect of many people, including myself. Overall, however, when comparing it with the first ish, I was a little disappointed. It an extremely good ish , but you'd expect more from a second issue The stories were very good, but many of them had a feeling of ST soap opera. "Kirk's Challenges" by Eileen Roy is a very interesting story so far, but it, too, falls into the category of the soaps, and this is intensified by the fact that it's a continuing story. "That Left Unspoken" by Barbra Letson was the worst thing in the zine and was the soapiest of all. "Trial by Ordeal" by Connie Faddis, on the other hand, was an excellent story about the Kidnapping of McCoy and Spock, with McCoy believing he had killed Spock. It's done in a style of flashback and memory that is quite effective. "What Henoch Did" by Paula Smith was the best story. It's a very well written short piece about what Henoch did with Spock's body.
Ruth Berman did most of the many poems, most of them passable. Other poets include Beth Robertson, Signe Landon, and L. V. Fargas. The covers were excellent; very outstanding. The front cover was blue and gold silkscreen over light blue cardboard. The mindmeld folio was decent, the best piece being "The Teaching" This was also the single best piece in the entire zine. The Spock Fantasia was a definite improvement over the Kirk version in ish 1. The intra-story artwork was an incredible improvement when comparing it to the quality in ish 1. The artwork in "Kirk's Challenges", however, was disappointing. Connie Faddis should have concentrated on doing a few good pieces instead of so many mediocre ones. The art in "Trial by Ordeal" was much better, and one of the best scenes was on page 93.Overall, this is an excellent zine, but it just isn't as good as I know Connie Faddis could have made it. She should concentrate more on what kind of fiction she puts in. When she does, this zine will be, in my book, THE best there is. 
Interphase 3 was published in August 1976 and had 161 pages. It is McCoy-centric. Title on cover, "!Interphase." It included a calendar by Gayle F. The cost was $4.30 for book rate, $5.82 for first class.From the editorial:
I do plan to do one more INTERPHASE next March or April, and then retire it. Zine-editing cuts too deeply into my other interests, more important to me personally, such as writing and drawing. I've enjoyed doing 'Phase, believe me -- I've learned several new skills, absorbed a lot of new concepts, and made an enormous number of new friends and acquaintances. It isn't the donkey-work of putting a zine together that's causing the problems, though -- it's the massive correspondence associated with the zine. And that soaks up time like a black holes sucks up light... Apologies to the persons who objected to the 'professional' attitude of Interphase -- it really is a fanzine, folks. It is my zine, though, and I am going to continue to do it the way I best know how. Apologies, too, to the person who objected to the autocratic tone of the last editorial -- but the limitations on art in the zine are set by technical or financial restrictions, not by my 'uniformed taste.' And on that cranky note, Pandora, I give this zine over to your keeping... I have plans to write a novel for Menagerie this Fall, so my time will be curtailed on other projects. (Yes, it's a ST novel Yes, it's adult. No, it isn't Kirk/Spock, Kirk/Spock/McCoy, McCoy/Spock, or any of the permutations [does not refer to slash, but to friendship]. It's science fiction. What's that, you say? Uh-huh, forgot it already, din't ya? I predict that Star Trek themes in science fiction themes is going to make a comeback. At least I hope so. The possible inter-relations of the ST characters is being written to death, and I, for one, would like to get mind on the stars out there...) 
- art by Gordon Carleton, Debbie Collin, Connie Faddis, Amy Falkowitz, Signe Landon, Elizabeth Marshall, Diane McClaugherty, Monica Miller, Gee Moaven, Marty Siegrist, and Laura Virgil.
- this issue included a supplement: calendar. Its title: Interphase Presents Adventures on the Fictional Plane in Which the Enterprise Visits the World of Literature by Gayle F. (September 1976 through March 1977).
- Theragin Derivative (editorial) (2)
- The Thought of a Man by Paula Smith (McCoy endangers his own life trying to keep Scotty alive after their shuttle has crashed and Scotty has been exposed to a lethal dose of radiation.) (6)
- Alternate Universe 4: The Writing, The Content by Virginia Tilley & Anna Mary Hall (article, explanation of the Alternate Universe 4 series) (16)
- The Place of Men-Made-Stone by Connie Faddis (Spock joins an anthropological landing party on a desert planet in hopes of a bit of R & R and ends up experiencing an episode from the planet’s past in which the indigenous Ummir drive the lizard-like Kivari to destruction for having enslaved them - creating the rock formations in the valley.)(22) (reprinted in Computer Playback #2) (PDF available online with publisher and author permission)
- Four Voices on Four Themes, poetry by L.V. Fargas (32)
- A Trio of Ancient Vulcan Myths by Monica Miller (story for art folio) (41)
- The Tin Man by Paula Block (50) (part of this is printed in Minara Nova, along with a single illo by Connie Faddis) (McCoy returns from Minara with all physical wounds repaired but with a heightened empathy that could mean not only the end of his medical career, but a life of isolation if no solution is found.)
- Interpretations by Paula Block, Ingrid Cross, Carol Frisbie & Kathy Penland of art by Connie Faddis (84)
- McCoy Fantasia by Paula Block, Ingrid Cross, Carol Frisbie, and Kathy Penland (art portfolio) (87)
- To Slay or Not To Slay: Why We Write Get ‘Em Stories - And Love ‘Em by Becca Oroukin & Connie Faddis (article) (98)
- Kirk's Challenge, Pt. 3: Home is the Hunter by Eileen Roy (Kraith Universe) (106)
- Thy Glory Like a Shooting Star by Ingrid Cross (McCoy death vignette, his life linked to a shooting star.) [Reprinted in Odyssey #1 and Vault of Tomorrow #2] (143)
- Creative Responses by The Readers (145)
- Plomeek Soup, reviews of Menagerie #9, The Night of the Twin Moons, Delta Triad #2, Rigel 32, Spectrum v.4 n.2., Berengaria #6 and #7, see those pages)
inside art from issue #3, Gordon Carleton: "Fandom took an immediate fancy to the imbecilic Mr. Gumby and began incorporating his characteristics into various stories and illos, no matter how inappropriate. Artist Gordon Carleton once dressed the entire Mego crew of the Enterprise in gumby atire, which inspired the infamous final illo of my story "The Tinman" -- from Paula Block in Syndizine #3 (1982)
Reactions and Reviews: Issue 3
See reactions and reviews for The Tin Man.
See reactions and reviews for A Trio of Ancient Vulcan Myths.
[zine]: Interphase I & II were filled with excellent fiction, beautiful art, great poetry and enlightening reviews. In Interphase III, this not so long-standing tradition is continued and upgraded. This is perhaps best typified by "The Tinman" a story by Paula Block. This McCoy story starts were "The Empath" stopped, and is the best and longest piece of fiction in the zine. "The Place of Men-Made-Stone" is a very close second, however, and is written by Connie, Other fiction includes "The Thought of a Man" by Paula Smith, "Thy Glory Like a Shooting Star" by Ingrid Cross and the third part of "Kirk's Challenge" by Eileen Roy. All good.
The fantasia (for McCoy) by Connie, is the best one yet, in every conceivable way.Also an interesting article on Alternate Universe Four and en even better one on Get'em stories were included. Four Voices on Four Themes by L.V. Fargas, is the best ST poetry I've yet to see, she really seemed to capture the essence of the characters. The reviews were also good, and the artwork exceptional. An outstanding buy at any price (well -- almost any price). 
Interphase 4 was published in May 1977 and has 202 pages. Original cost was $6/in person, $8.46/first class.
Art: front cover: Gayle F; back cover: Gee Moaven. Other art is by Susan Armstrong, Gordon Carleton, Debbie Collin, Mary Ann Emerson, Connie Faddis, Heather Firth, Signe Landon, Elizabeth Marshall, Martynn, Monica Miller, Marty Sietrist, Laura Virgil and Carol Walske.
As a supplement included was the calendar by Gayle F, Interphase Presents Star Trek Goes to the Movies (May to November 1977).
Connie, probably in response to some fannish grumblings in letterzines and elsewhere about the cost of this zine ($6/in person, $8.46/first class), included a detailed breakdown of her costs, see image. She closed with:"Thank God that it's over. . . " You are holding a copy of the last issue of INTERPHASE.
I have decided to retire the zine for a variety of reasons, the major one being that most of the work involved in zine publishing is sheer drudgery, and I'd rather have the time back for writing and drawing. Not that INTERPHASE hasn't been fun, mind you, and editing it has been mighty educational. Most of my goals for the zine have been accomplished, though: promising new writers, artists and poets have debuted in its pages; established artists, poets and writers have showcased their best efforts; new formats and ideas for a zine have been tried and proven. Attractive layout, foldouts and colored artwork have become accepted features in many other zines, INTERPHASE can't take credit for innovations in other editors' zines, of course, but I like to think that it served as a creative vanguard.
Some problems that have helped to hasten INTERPHASE'S retirement are the rising costs of offset printing and of postage. ((And my brain "hurts", too.)) I'm sure that you're well aware of the postage problem, it's the bane of fandom; but I'll bet you didn't know (and, unfortunately, I didn't either until too late for mailing out issue #3) that INTERPHASE can't be sent via 4th Class/Book Rate. Nope. The Calendar Supplement is not a book by postal regulations. I won't incriminate myself by discussing how 4th Class copies of INTERPHASE #3 managed to be mailed ("Tell them to take a good guess, Lieutenant. . . ."). But as a result, you can only order this current issue by First Class Rate or by United Parcel Service. I'd like to take a survey on how these two services compare, so if there is any problem when your copy arrives at your home (torn package, covers, broken binding, extreme lateness, etc.), please drop me a card and let me know. I intend to share the information with other zine editors. If UPS is better (it certainly is cheaper), that would be wonderful news.As for offset printing, I have a very supportive printer whose herculean efforts have been purchased at what I can only describe as a charitable rate. I still lost money on #3. One fact of life about printing that I have had to accept is that there will always be unforeseen costs, as well as unforeseen delays. (Incidentally, the major reason that I chose offset as the process by which to print INTERPHASE was be cause offset permits the greatest latitude and most faithful reproduction of artwork, and I wanted 'PHASE to be an artzine, among its other features. There were few zines prior to 'PHASE that allowed artists the freedom of expression that good off set permits. I do like mimeo, though. There's something satisfying — homey and fannish -- about the nubby paper and slightly blotchy printing that's missing from the cold slickness of offset. Within its limitations, mimeo printing can be done effectively, though -- anyone who's seen Devra Langsam's MASIFORM-D, or first-printing copies of SPOCKANALIA, will agree.) But I digress.
In addition, any extra postage that is left over from First Class and UPS rates will be sent to the ST Weicommittee. I realize that there have been zines as large in page-count as 'PHASE 4 that have cost less — THE OTHER SIDE OF PARADISE #2, for instance — but printing costs differ substantially by geographic region (and the TOSOP people lost money on that issue, too). (Ya can't win....) It's important to me to leave the zine-editing arena with a clean slate, and I will cheer fully open my books to any seriously interested person. To conclude, I'd recommend that you think twice, and three times, before you opt to do an offset zine. It's quite an investment — in time and energy as well as cash.
- Theragin Derivative (editorial) (2)
- First Contact by Claire Gabriel (reprinted in Quartet Plus Two) (6)
- Uhura Fantasia, art portfolio by Gee Moaven, interpretations by Mary Lou Dodge, Leslie Fish, Winston Howlett, Virginia Walker. (17)
- Mudd's Bequest by Alice Thompson (Christine takes the last of the Venus drug, with startling effects on her bosom and the command crew.) (26)
- Of Priests, Captains, Vulcans and Ship Surgeons poem by Paula Block (interpretation of Interphase #3 cover, McCoy in sleep or death. McCoy musing on those who sleep alone.) (28)
- Gone With the (Solar) Wind poem by Kathleen Penland (interpretation of Interphase #3 cover) (29)
- An Article of Faith by April Pentland (Mevran Al-Azar has committed the sacrilege of stealing from the ElIysians their Temple of Tendra-Galing. When the Enterprise captures the lady pirate along with the temple, McCoy finds himself strangely drawn to her. When Kirk is injured it is Mevran who uses the power of the temple to help McCoy save his life.) (32)
- The Alien Muse (art and poetry folio) by Martynn (54)
- Nu Ormenel Poetry Portfolio by Fern Marder (59) ("A collection of Ormenel poetry—Aroi Rakiehul' an introduction to the language; 'Reflections,' a look at the Federation through Kang's eyes; 'Challenge,' Kor's thoughts during the Organian incident; 'The Legend of Kerrekurasarm,' an epic poem about the Firebird and the Huntress of the Kilingarlan." 
- Star Trash: The Controllian Grid by Gordon Carleton (70)
- Kirk's Challenge, Pts. 4 & 5 by Eileen Roy (Kraith Universe) (80)
- The Ballad of Doc McCoy: A Shoot-'Em Up by Paula Smith (104)
- Crew Fantasia, art by Connie Faddis, responses by Anna Mary Hall (Sulu); Paula Smith (Janice Rand); Johanna Cantor (Chekov); Jean Lorrah (Chapel); Ruth Berman (Scotty) (107)
- Breeding Ground by Monica Miller (119)
- The Final Frontier: An Ethnography of Star Trek Fandom by James DiCostanzo. Article. (paper submitted to anthropology class, a very early example of an acafan getting it somewhat right, but mostly wrong.) (140)
- A Portfolio of Vulcan Scenes by Mary Ann Emerson (146)
- Equity by Joyce Yasner (154)
- Creative Responses by the readers (174)
- Third Wheel by Connie Faddis [revised and reprinted from Contact #2] (180) (reprinted in Computer Playback #2)
- Plomeek Soup, reviews of The Other Side of Paradise #2, Full Moon Rising, Fantasia #1, Fesarius #1, Obsc'zine #1, Stardate: Unknown #2, Masiform D #5, Contact #3, Metamorphosis #2, Independent Entity #3, Alpha Continuum #2, see those pages (187)
- an ad for the first issue of Scuttlebutt
The amount of art in this issue, as with previous issues of Interphase, is truly vast. Below is a sample of various artists and styles.
art from issue #4, Gordon Carleton -- "One of Gordon's wonderful comic-style episode spoofs, this one of "The Tholian Web." Lovely little throw-away lines, like Kirk's "I had a whole zine to myself..." 
Reactions and Reviews: Issue 4
See reactions and reviews for The Third Wheel.
See reactions and reviews for Breeding Ground.
See reactions and reviews for An Article of Faith.
See reactions and reviews for Equity.
[zine]: First of all, I would like to thank Connie for bringing 'Interphase' to the people. Connie wanted to go out with a bang, and she did. 'Interphase' #4 is a smart, neat, handsome zine and it's a pity that there aren't more like it on the market. 'Phase' starts out with 'First Contact.' It is about Kirk's commission to the Enterprise and is the best story as far as consistent writing quality is concerned in the zine. However, it does have one pitfall, that is when you finish it, you turn the page and look for more. It's more a story excerpt. I wanted more! Second is a very good story, 'An Article of Faith.' This story deals with the theft and return of a priceless alien artifact, which when coupled with human faith, has strange powers. The story takes several interesting if not down right shocking twists and if the story quality deteriorates a bit toward the end, it is more than compensated for by the plot twists. 'Kirk's Challenge' was brought to end (?) in this issue with the promise of more. 'Equity' is an interesting Kraith story and coupled with Susan Armstrong is the issue's second best offering. And finally, fictionally, 'The Third Wheel' which is revised and reprinted from 'Contact.' I was shocked to think that she would reprint something old as opposed to something new. The story is enjoyable, and the art excellent, but... This issue also possesses two fantastic portfolios. The first, by Gee Moaven, is dedicated to Uhura, and I enjoyed Winston Howlett's the best. The second, by Connie Faddis, is for the rest of the crew and Jean Lorrah's interp for the Chapel illo the best. A good cartoon by Gordon Carleton called 'The Controllian Grid.' Much good and some bad poetry and among the best art in fandom. Despite my nitpicking, 'Interphase' #4 is nothing short of a masterpiece and will sorely be missed by the rest of fandom. 
[zine]: This highly-praised zine has bowed out with a superlative last issue. As a non-Interphase fan (my personal taste just does not run to experimental creative writing), I was more than pleasantly surprised to find this zine also offers stories with solid plotting and characterization as well as the undergraduate experiments. 'The Third Wheel,' which examines the facets of the friendship between Kirk, Spock, and McCoy with wisdom and sensitivity, and the knowledge that it is an inclusive, not exclusive emotion, alone is worth the purchase price. The art runs from good comic book, to gorgeous, and the production values are first rate. It is a zine that has something pleasing for everyone. 
(issue includes clever cartoons sprinkled throughout)
- "First Contact" / On a starbase, eagerly waiting to see his new ship, not-quite-captain Kirk seeks out friends -- Pike, Mitchell and then McCoy, to share his excitement. But it is his new acquaintance, Spock, who understands and responds to his need for a private viewing by shuttlecraft.
- Uhura Fantasia / Art by Connie Faddis, responses by Mary Lou Dodge, Leslie Fish, Winston Howlett, Virginia Walker.
- "Mudd's Bequest" / Christine takes the last of the Venus drug, with startling effects on her bosom and the command crew.
- POEM: "Of Priests, Captains, Vulcans and Ship Surgeons" / Interp of Interphase #3 cover - McCoy in sleep or death. McCoy musing on those who sleep alone.
- POEM: "Gone With the (Solar) Wind" / Interp of Interphase #3 cover - McCoy in sleep or death. Unidentified mourner(s) taking leave of McCoy; all stanzas relate to the blue and gray of the Civil War.
- "An Article of Faith" / Enterprise pursues thieves who have made off with the entire Temple of the Ellysians, which those people credit with maintaining the peace and perfection of their disease and violence-free planet. Despite a plot based on mysticism (the temple turns out to be some kind of lens that captures and uses the power of faith), which is always annoying to me, the story is well-plotted with nice twists and has excellent characterization both of the familiar and new folks. Points, too, for having the beautiful thief fall for McCoy, the only one aboard who seems immune to her charms, rather than the Captain.
- "Star Trash: The Controllian Grid" / One of Gordon's wonderful comic-style episode spoofs, this one of "The Tholian Web." Lovely little throw-away lines, like Kirk's "I had a whole zine to myself..."
- "Kirk’s Challenge, Pts. 4 & 5" / Kraith universe. Parts 1&2 appeared in Interphase 2; Part 3 in Interphase 3. [Sorry, I didn't read... I find Kraith tedious.]
- POEM: "The Ballad of Doc McCoy: A Shoot-'Em Up" / A foolish Klingon challenges McCoy to a drinking match. Pretty crass; pretty funny.
- Crew Fantasia / Art by Connie Faddis, responses by Anna Mary Hall (Sulu); Paula Smith (Janice Rand); Johanna Cantor (Chekov); Jean Lorrah (Chapel); Ruth Berman (Scotty)
- "Breeding Ground" / Kirk and Spock arrive on a planet to attempt a diplomatic resolution to conflict between the two intelligent insectoid populations. Sabotage strands them in a region where they are attacked by large wasps which lay eggs in them. Oooh, ick. Rescue is effected by a combination of Spock taking Kirk into a healing trance, McCoy's persistence in a search party and discovery of the saboteur by a local leader. Standard stuff.
- "The Final Frontier: An Ethnography of Star Trek Fandom" / Article. (Paper submitted to anthropology class.) It was entertaining to read this from an "outsider" pov. It was basically an explication of fan lingo (fen, filking, trekker/trekkie, FIAWOL/FIJAGH...) and concludes with the usual stereotype of trekfolk as social inadequates in need of a place to belong. [Well, yes, we know those people are there, but so they are in any group, are they not?]
- "A Portfolio of Vulcan Scenes" / Artwork & interps.
- "Equity" / A Kraith-type story, with the usual Big-Brother, controlling and rigid Vulcan society which seems all out of kilter to me. A married couple and a young man have inadvertently missed the Affirmation and are therefore cast out of any meaningful role in society. The single young man is expected to die in pon farr, but the wife rescues him; therefore, society sees them as such a threat that it sentences them all to be sterilized. (Huh? Where's the logic?) They seek asylum with the Terran embassy.
- "The Third Wheel" / [Revised and reprinted from Contact #2] While tending a badly damaged Kirk, McCoy has grown closer to Spock. Now, with Kirk mended, he frets over his renewed position as the outsider to his friends' friendship. It takes his own near-death from a malfunctioning sonic shower to convince him that he is a necessary part of them. Lovely angst and resolution. 
- Boldly Writing, by Joan Marie Verba, pg 24
- from the March 1975 issue of The Halkan Council
- from Connie Faddis: The Visionary
- from Comlink #42
- from Interstat #6, comment by Bev C
- from Gerry Downes in Stardate Unknown #1
- from Fanzine Review 'Zine
- from a fellow zine ed, the creator of Eel-Bird Banders' Bulletin #1
- from Time Warp #1
- from the LoC section of Enterprise Incidents #7
- Nancy Kippax. ARS GRATIA ARTIS:: The Lost Art of Illoing. 20 July 2008 (accessed 12 Dec 2009)
- comment by kslangley at What was your first fandom?, August 28, 2016
- from the editorial
- exact source unknown, but likely in The Halkan Council
- from Warped Space #21
- from Universal Translator #20
- from The Halkan Council #10 (September 1975)
- a reference to either The Tailored Effect or The Spock Charisma Effect
- from The Halkan Council #10 (September 1975)
- from Spectrum #19
- from The Halkan Council #14 (January 1976)
- from Spectrum #24
- from Sehlat's Roar #2
- this last project appears not to have been published
- by Randy Ash from Sehlat's Roar #3
- description from a timeline printed in Threshold (Star Trek: TOS zine)|Threshold]], see Nu Ormenel)
- from Karen Halliday's Zinedex
- from The Sehlat's Roar #5
- from Scuttlebutt #3
- Star Trek Zinedex (TOS) - Contents - I, Archived version