Buffy the Vampire Slayer

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Name: Buffy the Vampire Slayer
Abbreviation(s): BtVS
Creator: Joss Whedon
Date(s): 1997-2003
Medium: television series, movie, books, comics, games
Country of Origin: US
External Links: IMDB
Click here for related articles on Fanlore.

Buffy the Vampire Slayer was a television series created by Joss Whedon, based on the 1992 theatrical movie of the same name. (Whedon wrote the screenplay, but did not direct the film, and he was not fully satisfied with it.[1])


It premiered on the WB network in March 1997, although an unaired pilot was created before that. The first season ran for 12 episodes; it was a marginal success for the fledgling network and was brought back for a second season beginning in September 1997. It ran for five seasons on the WB before moving to another small startup network, UPN, for its final two seasons. Star Sarah Michelle Gellar was eager to move on from the show, and after some controversial developments and character arcs, ratings had deteriorated.

After the third season of Buffy, in 1998, one of the series' primary characters, vampire-with-a-soul boyfriend-of-Buffy Angel, was spun off into his own series on the WB.

Buffy is considered by many critics and viewers to be one of the best television series ever made. It combined horror, fantasy, drama, humor, teen angst, and action in a way no other series ever had. Buffy Summers was created as a sort of anti-archetype by Whedon; the small, seemingly defenseless blond girl who turns out to have enormous power—and enormous responsibility. The initial seasons began with a prologue that included information about what a Vampire Slayer was: "Into each generation, a Slayer is born. One girl, in all the world, a chosen one. One born with the strength and skill to hunt the vampires, to stop the spread of evil..." to which Buffy responds, in the first episode, with: "...blah blah, I've heard it, okay?" This was typical of the way the series skewered even its own seriousness. Most of the time, Buffy simply wanted to be a regular American teenage girl, like her friends Xander Harris and Willow Rosenberg, and not the one carrying the weight of the world on her shoulders. In the season finale of the first series, she even rejects her calling when she finds out a prophecy predicts she'll die that night, weeping that she never wanted to be the Slayer, and that she was "only sixteen" and too young to die. Nevertheless, like all true heroes, Buffy does do her job.

The series continues officially in the "season"ed comic book adaptations, starting with Season 8, as well as the one-shots Tales of the Vampires and Tales of the Slayers. It also has been continued in virtual seasons through a number of fanfic projects. Fray, a graphic novel published in 2001-2003, concurrent with seasons five, six, and seven of the television show, is also part of the canon.

Merchandising products associated with the show and with Angel include a large number of episode adaptations, novels and short story collections (generally considered not to be canon), many non-canon comics, script books and other factual material such as guides to the monsters, collectible figures and other toys, board games, computer games and a tabletop role playing game.


As one of the first shows to have an active Internet presence, fannish participation was a virtual smorgasbord for fen, with multiple fannish websites, email groups, and forums.

Thanks to satellite programming and wildfeeds, some fans had an early jump on the show, before its regularly scheduled air time and date, and posted reviews and episode summaries online. Other fans transcribed their own scripts, often with detailed disclaimers, from recording and rewatching the episodes. One site SlayMe.com contained episode transcripts, as well as other Buffyverse fan content. It had to revamp it's site, removing transcripts, following a C&D letter from Fox, and this may have impacted the administrators decision to host The Bringers, a fan group dedicated to protecting fan sites online, on it's site.[2] SlayMe.com disappeared from the internet in Sept 2000. Still other sites shared whole scripts or spoilers from the original shooting scripts. The best known of these, the Buffy Shooting Script site, was also shut down following a C&D letter from Fox.[3]

As one of the first online fandoms, having access to complete scripts was important for reasons beyond theorizing or discussion. In a time before streaming, the sharing of scripts allowed fans to catch up on missed episodes, but it also allowed fans new to the series to enter the fandom. It also allowed fans outside the US to stay up to date when the series would not be aired in their country until months after the original airdate.

The fandom is the reason why thefanlistings.org exists, since someone had wanted to find out how many Buffy fans were out there on the Internet, leading to the first fanlisting.[citation needed] The Fanlistings Network was originally founded by Janine, a Buffy fan who is credited with creating the first online fanlisting. Her site Slayer's Empire was opened on May 3, 2000 and connected Buffy fans. The Fanlistings Network was also founded by Janine in 2000, and aimed to connect fans from multiple fandoms. Janine later stepped aside in 2002 to focus on her other sites.[4]

Ships and Pairings

Het Pairings

Slash Pairings

Femslash Pairings

Threesome and Moresome Pairings

Joss Whedon and Buffy Fandom

Creator Joss Whedon has been involved with his fanbase more than most showrunners. Himself a fan, he's put his own experiences into his series, especially on Buffy, even making a reference in one seventh-season episode to posting fanfic online. He frequently interacts with fans on the site devoted to his work, Whedonesque [1]. One of his most famous instances of support for fans came in 1999, regarding the 18th episode of season three and the season finale. The Columbine school massacre had recently occurred, and the WB decided to pull both "Earshot," which dealt with Buffy's sudden ability to hear people's thoughts—one of which is someone planning to kill people on the Sunnydale school campus—and the season finale, "Graduation Day Pt. 2" (because of violent activities—including blowing up the school library). When the series was aired in Canada on schedule, bootleg copies of the latter episode became widely available, and Whedon was quoted as encouraging people to get it, saying "Bootleg the puppy."

He says he has an ambivalent relationship with fanfiction, both liking it and also feeling concerned about it, but he has frequently shown his appreciation for fan-made vids of Buffy and his other series. In the early days of Buffy fandom, Whedon spoke out against Fox's attempts to shut down fan web sites devoted to Buffy and other Fox shows, such as The X-Files.

Whedon became so infamous for introducing surprising (and often heart-wrenching) plot developments and character backstories in Buffy that fan writers invented a term to describe when new canon contradicted what they had written: to be Jossed. The more heart-wrenching plot twists also resulted in the oft-repeated mantra "Joss is evil."[5]

In 2005, an attempt was made by Fox lawyers to stop the live-action showing of the musical episode "Once More, with Feeling," despite the fact that Whedon had publicly stated he had no problem with the event.

Academic Fandom

Many academics were/are fans of Buffy and devoted enough scholarly attention to it with papers, edited collections, and conferences that the term "Buffy studies" was coined. See The Encyclopedia of Buffy Studies(Archived Link).

Some have accused the early Buffy conferences of being fan conventions in disguise.[6] The first international Buffy conference, "Blood, Text & Fears" was held in the UK before the series had finished, and before season 7 had aired in the UK. Guest speakers who referenced the season were often greeted by protests from fans who did not want to be spoiled. Screenings of the first three episodes from that season were in such high demand, that organizers struggled to find a room large enough to show them. [7] Some also questioned the use of video clips and images to add weight to academic arguments. Academics were aware and sometimes uncomfortable with the fannishness of early Buffy conferences. At the Tennessee Slayage Conference in 2004, a spoiler policy was put in place as the series finale of Angel had yet to air. [8]

A very small number of attendees at conferences have also been dismissive of fans activities at conventions, in an effort to distinguish themselves from those fans and events.

[I attended] the international Slayage conference (an academic conference, not a fan convention with costumes, just to be clear. I wanted to talk about it, not dress up as Willow. I have some standards.)[9]

Buffy the Patriarchy Slayer: many links to academic articles.

More possible topics for expansion

  • The neverending Spike discussion: Spike/Buffy vs Buffy/Angel, "Seeing Red" and the attempted rape, etc.
  • The Kitten Board and the controversy surrounding Tara's death
  • Buffy the Vampire Slayer/Season 8 and surrounding controversy
  • The UCSL and pioneering (in some circles) a freer approach to pairings
  • One of the earliest fandoms to "grow up" entirely online, effects of? ie, higher tolerance for experimental/short/unusual styles of writing (see also The X-Files)
  • Issues with general dislike/bashing of Buffy the character, esp among slash fans
  • Sites with screencaps and transcripts etc. attacked by Fox
  • Tropes e.g. Halloween costume fics.


Challenges, comms, and sites from the last 4 years or so) (please expand!)

Older communities:


Vidding related: The Buffy and Angel fandoms had a strong digital vidding community. Among them:

The Buffy vidding community also offered vidders numerous awards, some of which are archived here.

Vids listed on Fanlore



Neither Buffy nor Angel fandoms were fanzine-centric and the majority of the fan fiction and artwork is published online. There are several e-zines in the form of fan fiction publications and/or newsletters. A partial list can be found here.

For a list of Buffy fanzines on Fanlore go: Buffy_the_Vampire_Slayer/Fanzines


Various fansites were created for the Buffy fandom.

Meta/Further Reading


  1. "That character had been brewing in me for many years. I finally sat down and had written it and somebody had made it into a movie, and I felt like -- well, that's not quite her. It's a start, but it's not quite the girl." Interview with Whedon on Dark Horse website linked via the wayback machine. (Last accessed August 2, 2009.)
  2. "Show's fan sites fight off 'demon' Fox Production company cites its copyrights" by Kevin V. Johnson, December 23, 1999.
  3. Buffy Shooting script site, Cease & Desist announcement from Rayneshared at Existential Scoobies, Aug 2001.
  4. TFL 101 on fanlistings.org, accessed May 17 2019.
  5. For example, see Joss' Evil Plans for Xander (Spoilers up to 7.18). April 24, 2003, post on BABoards. See also this Flickr image by Which Witch, joss is evil, uploaded May 7, 2006
  6. A Weekend With Buffy, Vampire Slayer and Seminar Topic by Charles Taylor, posted NOV. 24, 2002, accessed 8 June 2019.
  7. Deconstructing Buffy: Scholarly Buffy-philes gather at an English university to discuss by STEPHANIE ZACHAREK, posted NOVEMBER 9, 2002, accessed 8 June 2019.
  9. Buffy and me: a year-long project blogpost by Naomi Alderman, June 10, 2012, accessed June 8 2019.