The Beatles

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RPF Fandom
Name(s): The Beatles
Scope/Focus: The Beatles real-person fiction
Date(s): 1960s - present
See also: John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, Ringo Starr
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The Beatles were an incredibly popular English band from the 1960s. The fandom, one that was started in Liverpool, while they were still the Quarrymen, is a long-enduring one, riddled with folklore, legend and other stories. It is often considered a sub-category of the Classic Rock fandom, but also a standalone fandom as well. Related fandoms are The Who, The Rolling Stones, the Classic Rock fandom, and the Monkees fandom.

There was an increase in fandom activity in the 2000s, largely on LiveJournal and fan run sites and archives, most likely owing in part to the release of the multimedia project The Beatles Anthology between 1995 and 2000. While it has a massive prevalence all across the globe, one of its strongest concentrations currently among young people is on Tumblr. It has organized itself much like popular media fandoms, with overarching big-name fans and several fandom-specific memes. The release of the documentary series Get Back by Peter Jackson in 2021 generated another wave of renewed interest in the fandom.


Beatlemania is a term used to describe the fandom and fan behavior surrounding the Beatles in the 1960s, in particular "the ecstatic, female-led fan culture surrounding the Beatles between 1963 and 1966."[1].

Beatlemania encompassed many fan behaviors, such as listening to records, participating in fan clubs, collecting pictures of the band, reading and writing in fan magazines (such as Beatles Monthly), and having a favorite Beatle. However, it was particularly focused on fans' mass expression of intense emotion at concerts, or when otherwise in the physical presence of the band, and other extreme behaviors: screaming, crying, fainting, wetting their pants, chasing the band, tearing their clothes, attempting to get into their hotel rooms. The lasting cultural image of Beatlemania is a crowd of screaming girls.

Beatlemania surpassed previous examples of fan culture in its intensity and scope. Initially, the fans were predominantly young women and cultural commentators attempted to explain and make sense of the phenomenon, asking why they acted this way, what did it mean, and was it harmful. Their behaviour was scorned by many commentators, such as New Stateman editor Paul Johnson, who in 1964 said, "Those who flock round the Beatles, who scream themselves into hysteria, are the least fortunate of their generation, the dull, the idle, the failures."[2] In their article, "Beatlemania: Girls Just Want to Have Fun"[3], Barbara Ehrenreich, Elizabeth Hess, and Gloria Jacobs describe Beatlemania as "the first mass outburst of the '60s to feature women – in this case girls, who would not reach full adulthood until the '70s – and the emergence of a genuinely political movement for women's liberation."[4]

The fandoms of subsequent pop acts – typically boy bands – are often compared to Beatlemania (e.g. Hot Docs premiere I Used to Be Normal chronicles the highs and lows of extreme fandom, On Hanson, fandom, and the sexual desire of teenage girls). This comparison is made by fans and journalists alike, and can be intended as positive or negative.

In a New York Times review of The Beatles Anthology, Mim Udovitch suggests a connection between the emotional response of Beatlemania and something like slash shipping, citing the band's homoeroticism as one of the factors contributing to their appeal:

They were preceded by a tsunami of hype, and they lived up to it -- ubiquitous, accessible, obliquely but overwhelmingly sexy in a way that defied all standards of sex appeal. In the polite suits that somehow did not efface the (true) impression that these boys would be wearing leather if they could, they were simultaneously every teenage girl's dream and beyond homoerotic: watch any video clip in which John and Paul are on the same mike; as they sing, close together, facing each other, mouths open as if about to kiss, the shrieks always escalate.[5]

Fan Fiction

RPF Fanfiction

There was a Beatles RPF fandom as far back as the late '60s, but that community didn't overlap or connect very much with science fiction or media fandom, and not much is known about the players, fanworks or fan activities of the community. Some fans have reported privately writing Beatles fic when they were young, before they were aware of fandom or that writing fanfiction was something also done by others.

[2001]: No, I have no desire to explore characters from another show at all as an adult person. However, when I was a child and teen I handwrote what I now recognize to be early fanfic for "Bonanza," "The Man From Uncle," "Secret Agent Man," and groupfic for the Beatles, among others! [6]

[2005]: I wrote my first Starsky & Hutch story, "Betrayal," in 1999 after having discovered fan fiction on the web. I was inspired by the other writers. I remember saying to my husband, "I wish I could do that." His response was, "Well, why don't you?" He knew I had written short stories since I was nine years old, and I had shared with him my deep, dark secret of writing stories about the Beatles while in high school. I guess that was a form of fan fiction. But in the 1960s, we certainly didn't acknowledge there was such a genre. He bought me a laptop and said, "Go for it!"[7]

[2006]: Way back in the beginning of time I wrote about The Beatles. Called them ‘my stories’. Whenever I wanted a ‘bad’ guy, I added Mick Jagger to the mix. [8]

However, in her widely reprinted article, "Beatlemania: A Sexually Defiant Consumer Subculture",[9] Barbara Ehrenreich describes and analyzes aspects of 1960s Beatles fandom that make it seem interestingly analogous to certain aspects of fannish practices today.[10] There are several small archives and communities recording Beatles Slash (their preferred term over Beatles RPF) as a branch of media fandom in the internet era.

Beatles RPF was also present on FanFiction.Net (763 stories as of June 2002), but was removed in October 2002 after banned Music Fan Fiction.[11]

There is Beatles RPF of all kinds on Archive Of Our Own, including slash, fantasy narratives, and Fix-it stories in which John Lennon is never shot, or is shot but survives or is brought back to life; and where George Harrison is either cured or revived. Many of these stories involve time travel.

On AO3, and elsewhere, John Lennon/Paul McCartney is the most popular Beatles ship. However, fic exists for almost any combination of two, three, or all four Beatles (e.g. George Harrison/Ringo Starr, George Harrison/Paul McCartney). Beatles are also shipped with people outside of or associated with the band (e.g. Brian Epstein/John Lennon, John Lennon/Stuart Sutcliffe, Robert Fraser/Paul McCartney, Bob Dylan/George Harrison). Popular het ships include Beatles and their real-life wives (e.g. Linda McCartney/Paul McCartney, Cynthia Lennon/John Lennon, John Lennon/Yoko Ono, Pattie Boyd/George Harrison) and original character and reader-insert ships with a Beatle.

Opinions differ as to whether fiction based on the fictionalized versions of the Beatles seen in Help! and Yellow Submarine, or on the Beatles' appearances in Doctor Who canon,[12] count as RPF.


George Harrison | John Lennon | Paul McCartney | Ringo Starr

Neil Aspinall | Peter Brown | Linda Eastman | Brian Epstein | Mal Evans | Robert Fraser | Dhani Harrison | Cynthia Lennon | Julian Lennon | Sean Lennon | George Martin | Stella McCartney | Yoko Ono | Stuart Sutcliffe | Derek Taylor

Fanfiction Examples

Fan Comments

[1987]: Linda was my Johnfriend. We spent weekends at my Aunt Edna’s house so we could be on neutral ground, pretending it was hallowed Beatle ground. We were two girls in a constant state of Beatle skits. I played John and myself, and she played Paul and herself. We could switch personalities with the flick of an accent. We took each other to parties and concerts, we ate dinner in gorgeous restaurants on Aunt Edna’s patio, and professed undying love with semiperfect working-class Liverpudlian accents. At night, we played all four people at the same time, when we would lie entwined in each other’s arms, pressing our four sets of lips together in an eternal expression of Beatle Love. We wrote Beatle love stories for each other, and I could hardly wait to get to school to get my hands on the next installment of my continuing Paulsaga. I had six stories going at once, but my favorite was written by my old friend Iva. Ooooh, it was soooo titillating! She actually got us in the sack. [13]

[1994]: Then there are the rumors about things that went on somewhat later in Beatles fandom. One thing I heard was that girls used to write each other love letters, and in some cases have actual affairs, in the personae of their respective favorite Beatles: "I'll be John and you be Paul," or something like that. I suspect that something along these lines— women role-playing male parts with each other— is being done by at least some people in present-day slash fandom, though I've never met anyone who admits to it. [14]

[1994]: As for Beatles slash, it seems like this is getting more and more public. First, there was Jane Champion's A Girls Own Story that I mentioned a few issues back that dealt with a young lesbian's coming of age through making love to a girlfriend, while wearing John and Paul masks and pretending to be the Beatles. Then, there is Backbeat which is very slashy in its treatment of the John Lennon and Stuart Suttcliff relationship, including some dialog suggesting that they are in love with each other and John running around angsting about whether people think he's queer. A lot of classic slash situations there. Then, there is a gay independent production I haven't seen yet, Hours in The Time, which depicts a weekend long sexual encounter between John and Stuart. So, this fannish fantasy is starting to get more and more open as the people who grew up imagining homosex between two or more of the Beatles now have access to the filmmaking apparatus. [15]

[1994]: I've heard several people mention various slashy type stories written about the Beatles and other rock groups - as groups as you mentioned, not couples - that were circulated on a "circuit" in the late 60's. I've heard most of it was very "..." type of writing, but I'd still be curious to see some of it anyway. Anyone ever run across any of this? [16]

[1994]: One thing I'd like to hear more about, if any information is available, is the purported use of the Beatles as vehicles for female love affairs. This might be called slash, or serve the same purpose slash does in exciting erotic interest by use of male personas within a female group. [17]

[2007]: It's a funny thing. I'm sitting here trying to remember my very first fannish love and it has just come back to me ... sitting at home watching Ed Sullivan introduce the Beatles and feeling something going booooiiiinnnngggg inside me. [18]

[2010]: Beatles fan fiction was pretty big starting in the mid-90's when the Anthology came out to the early 00's. I wrote a full-length novel, a half-finished sequel, and numerous short stories all about George Harrison. A few girls still write it, but it's nowhere near the frenzy earlier in the decade. [19]

[2012]: I never got into the major, major slash fandoms. But one day, I thought, there's gotta be a Beatles LJ. That's gotta be happening somewhere. And there was. It was called "John Heart Paul." That was the name of the LJ. Now, when I was a little kid — a little kid, younger than ten — my sister and I, my older sister and I were just playing a game like "Name your favorite whatever" and I think one thing she said was "Name your favorite love story." And I said, "John Lennon and Paul McCartney." And she said, "What do you mean by that?" And I said, "I think, of all of the people in the 20th century that loved each other the most, they loved each other the most." And I think what I was kind of implying was, it was because they broke each other's hearts. That's the proof. You can see it because it ended. But I was just really convinced by that. When I was a little kid, I said, Yep, no question. That's—. If I have to think about who loved each other the most, it was them. When I found John Heart Paul, I couldn't believe I never slashed them. That's the name of the fandom — it's called John Heart Paul, duh. What? I even called it, when I was like nine. Of course that's the fandom! (laughs)

And that fandom, that was probably the first fandom where I've read a lot of slash, and I must say that I love it. I mean, it's not— It's different. It's a different experience than reading het fic. It's a different kind of thing, but it's so rewarding. That's one of those moments when I felt like I forecast that pairing. Even before I knew that that was what I was doing. Harking back to some kind of childhood pairing I had invented in my mind, finding the fic for that; really rewarding. It feels really special to know that others love it as you do, care about it that much, cared about it enough to write it, and that the writing is sometimes so beautiful and really gets to the heart of a relationship you always wondered about.

Also, fans know a lot more. I mean, a lot of those fans know a lot more than I do about the Beatles, about individual people, what happened at different times of their lives. Things that flag to fans in Real Person fic are real things that really happened. And you have to really know quite a bit of stuff, especially for older stuff. You have to have sources that I don't have access to unless they've been digitized, you know? So the stuff that I learned from that fandom was, like, the time they went to Paris alone when they were kids, the times before Stu dropped out of the band, when Stu was the most beautiful one, and Paul was jealous of that relationship. You know, this time and this other time, the time they met when they were kids, the time they — Paul wouldn't do acid, you know? And the time he finally did. The time they were playing a show in Florida and it was a hurricane and John and Paul stayed up all night long, together, just the two of them. And how do we know this? From interviews, from little things that one or the other has said in their millions of interviews over the years — fans can accumulate that data and compare it to each other. They can quote from Rolling Stones interviews from 1969. "Rolling Stone, 1979 — you know, this citation here, it was in this paper in 1964. This is the quote. This is the interview he just did with Howard Stern," like they can tie all of this random data together and they can more or less construct the fan history of that relationship, and they can fic it, then.

And you know what's amazing? It's that— So there are all these references to all these things I've mentioned. The Paris trip, the haircut — that was the Paris trip — the Florida incident, the acid stuff. I mean, that stuff is now fanonical in the fandom. What's amazing is that one fan posts a story by John. By John Lennon. One of his short stories, it's clearly a John/Paul slash fic story. And you would only know that if you knew everything that ever happened to them. But John knew, you know? He knew it, because he lived it. And so all of the references are there. The Paris story. That this was Paul's favorite song that summer — it was a Beach Boys song; it was "God Only Knows." But this reference, and this reference— he never uses their names, but he also doesn't have to for fans. Because fans don't need the names. They don't need that. They know that that was Paul's favorite song at that particular month; they know that. So it's great. That's—. That was so great to see John Lennon writing. Writing slash. (laughs) That was a terrific find. [20]

[2022]: I'm rewatching the first two beatles movies[21] and I forget how batshit insane 'help!' is. Like imagine if BTS made a movie today where two different groups of people were out to kill them and chased them across several countries, but BTS were also stoned out of their minds and acted completely indifferent about whether the other members died. Because that's just the entire plot of 'help!'[22]



  • Abbeyway, a fic archive which ran from 2002 to 2006 and contained 72 stories at last record of Internet Archive.
  • Beatles Slash, a slash fic and discussion LJ community started in 2003.
  • John Heart Paul, a slash fic and discussion Livejournal and Dreamwidth community dedicated to the John Lennon/Paul McCartney pairing.
  • Here Today, a small archive site.
  • Mako's Tank, personal archive of Mako, with fic in several fandoms including Beatles slash.
  • Oh! Darling, a fic archive containing 772 stories, last updated 2005.
  • The RS-X Archive, a multi-fandom RPS site that held Beatles fic.
  • Savoy Truffle, a small archive, last updated 2002.
  • Two of Us, a small archive site.



Professional Beatles RPF

  • 1978 film I Wanna Hold Your Hand, essentially a Mary Sue story in which several American teenagers attempt to sneak into the Beatles' hotel room in 1964.
  • 1991 film The Hours and Times, a fictionalized account of John Lennon and Brian Epstein in Spain together in 1963.
  • 1994 film Backbeat, a film that focuses on The Beatles' time in Hamburg, and in particular the relationship between John Lennon and Stuart Sutcliffe.
  • 2000 novella Plastic Jesus by Poppy Z. Brite, which postulates a love affair between a thinly disguised Lennon and McCartney.
  • 2000 film Two of Us, a fictional rendering of the meeting between Paul McCartney and John Lennon at John's New York City apartment in 1976.
  • 2009 film Nowhere Boy is a retelling of John Lennon's youth and first encounters with Paul McCartney and George Harrison, with many fictionalised elements added.


Influence on Vidding

The Beatles' promo videos are among some of the earliest music videos. Their promotional videos for "Rain", "Paperback Writer", and "Strawberry Field Forever" show the band moving more and more away from conventional music promos, where the band mimes singing and playing instruments. With "Strawberry Fields Forever" there is no attempt at the impression of musical performance, but instead associating new images (in this case, the band cavorting surreally in a field near a large tree and a semi-disassembled piano) with the song. The promo also makes heavy use of unusual editing effects.[23] Kandy Fong, the first live action media vidder, cites the video for "Strawberry Fields Forever" as an inspiration for Both Sides Now, a Star Trek slideshow set to music that is one of the earliest vids.

What was the influence behind "Both Sides Now"?

Well, as I said, I was looking for entertainment for the Star Trek club. So I wanted something funny, entertaining, etc. And I was already writing by then, and we had a club fanzine. So the idea of writing a story and putting it with pictures just made good sense to me.

If you remember back, these dates of so-called professional music videos, you'd have a band standing up there playing their instruments, and that's pretty much the video. But the Beatles did a video called "Strawberry Fields Forever." And they're doing all kinds of very strange things like jumping out of trees, and they had this deconstructed piano that the wires just go up to the thing up there…And they're just doing all sorts of unusual images. And to my mind I'm thinking this, going, "Okay, we're disconnecting the actual playing of the instruments and singing the song with the images we're seeing. So I can take a song and use images from somewhere else to tell my story—oh, Star Trek, oh, of course Star Trek!" And that's where I got the idea.[24]

The earliest known English-language Anime Music Video is a Space Battleship Yamato vid created by Jim Kaposztas in 1982, set to "All You Need Is Love". The vid was inspired by the final episode of The Prisoner, where the song is played during a particularly violent scene. Kaposztas was inspired to set violent scenes from Space Battleship Yamato to the same song. The use of "All You Need Is Love" in the finale of The Prisoner was one of the rare times The Beatles licensed their music for television, because they were fans of the show.[25]

Scooby Road, by Luminosity, the first concept album vid, uses the entirety of the album Abbey Road set to source footage from Buffy the Vampire Slayer. It premiered at Vividcon in 2005.

Vids using songs by The Beatles

Vids of The Beatles

Compared to the number of vids that use The Beatles' music, vids about The Beatles or using footage of The Beatles are comparatively fewer.


Fanart is possibly the most common form of fanwork in the Beatles fandom, with many people who draw it likely not even considering themselves fannish. The Beatles have a long artistic history, starting with illustrator Tony Booth the original poster artist and graphic designer for the band.[26]

Fanart Examples

Abbey Road Parodies


Likely due to being widely-known tunes, songs by The Beatles are relatively popular as a basis for filks and parodies.

Lennon/McCartney Tinhatting

A significant subset of Beatles slashers participate in nonfiction analysis, or tinhatting, activities in regards to the John/Paul pairing. Some very firmly believe that Lennon and McCartney were romantically involved with one another in some fashion, while others are interested in the idea, but remain sceptical. Evidence in the form of songs, interviews, photographs and video, and third-party accounts are collected and shared amongst "McLennon shippers", as many refer to themselves. Fanworks, including written analysis and fan videos, have been created to help share collected evidence and convince readers/viewers.

McLennon Shippers and Communities

Significant Fanworks

Communities, Mailing Lists, & Forums

  • appleandmantras - LJ community dedicated to the pairing George Harrison/Ringo Starr
  • The Beatles Fan Fiction Directory - an LJ community with an archive by the same name. As of 2011, 261 stories archive, both slash and het
  • The Beatles Kink Meme - a Beatles kink meme on tumblr, with an AO3 collection
  • Beatles Rarepair Week - a fandom event organized on tumblr and with an AO3 collection for ships other than John/Paul and George/Ringo.
  • BeatlesSlash
  • Beatles Slash (LiveJournal community), earliest post, 2 Jan 2001, continuous posting from April 2003. Over a thousand members as of access date 12 July 2009. (profile contains links to several other livejournal communities devoted to specific pairings of Beatles Slash)
  • beautiful_nite - LJ community dedicated to the pairing Paul McCartney/Ringo Starr
  • hari_macca - LJ community dedicated to the pairing Paul McCartney/George Harrison
  • JohnheartPaul founded in 2005 on LiveJournal and dedicated only to the Lennon/McCartney pairing, including fanfic and nonfiction analysis (tinhatting). Moved to Dreamwidth in 2017.
  • John/Paul Slash Uncensored, a moderated John/Paul fic community founded in 2007 on LiveJournal. It lasted only a few weeks.
  • jp_archive on LJ, on DW, an archive on Livejournal and Dreamwidth indexing John Lennon/Paul McCartney fics posted on a variety of sites.
  • The J/P Library - Description: "A gathering place for both the authors and readers of fictional works featuring John Lennon and Paul McCartney."
  • kinkme_beatles - a Beatles kink meme on Livejournal.
  • lennonharrison - LJ community dedicated to the pairing John Lennon/George Harrison
  • MACCA-L - email list dedicated to the discussion of Paul McCartney's life and work.
  • MacLen Musings, Ltd. is an archive of quotations from The Beatles, people who knew them directly, and third parties who have written about The Beatles, documenting Paul McCartney and John Lennon's relationship. Run by hb_princess
  • McLennon Week - a fandom event for the John Lennon/Paul McCartney ship run on Tumblr, timed around When John Met Paul Day (July 6)
  • Paul McCartney Adult Slash Fiction - Fandom: Beatles. Description: "This is a list devoted to discussion of, and fanfic about, Paul McCartney. Crossovers welcome as long as Paul is a main character. m/m slash. Must be 18 to join. Your request for membership will be your statement that you are 18 are over. If this is the kind of list you want, then join. I request all members introduce themselves, do not be a lurker. Your input is important too the list. There will be no bashing allowed, No one will make fun of your spelling are punctuation. This is a list to share your stories, So if you have a story please post it, if you read a story, please give feedback. Professional writers do not write these stories, were just some fans looking to have some fun. AtPaulMcCartneyAdultSlashFiction, we want Writers and Readers who will give feed back on stories. If you are coming on to the list to lurk you need to find another list. Any discussion about the Beatles is welcome, but we are a fan fiction list. Lusting about Paul is allowed."
  • XXXX Beatles Erotica - Description: "This is a XXXXXXX fan fiction list,if you love to write erotic fiction are just read. It's about The Beatles will see everything. Including heterosexual, bisexual, homosexual themes, consensual and non-consensual sex, B&D, S&M Slash etc.. you will see it all. Therefore, that is your warning, if you choose to read it. You will also read fiction that contains a little of everything erotic. Fiction that contains, kidnapping, stalking, rape and the supernatural. Anything goes as long as it has The Beatles in it. No one under 18 allowed. Everyone over 18 is welcome. If this is the kind of list you want, then join. I request all members introduce themselves, do not be a lurker. Your input is important too the list. There will be no bashing allowed, No one will make fun of your spelling are punctuation. This is a list to share your stories, So if you have a story please post it, if you read a story, please give feedback. Professional writers do not write these stories, were just some fans looking to have some fun. At XXXXBeatles, we want Writers and Readers who will give feed back on stories. If you are coming on to the list to lurk you need to find another list. Any discussion about the Beatles is welcome, but we are a fan fiction list. Lusting after The Beatles is allowed."

Meta/Further Reading


  • (German language) A German-language fanzine ran from 1982 to 2010 containing news, interviews and analysis about the band.
  • The Beatles Book (AKA Beatles Monthly) A monthly fanzine ran from 1963 to 1969, then from 1976 to 2003 initially with support and overseeing from Beatles management. Content of the zine would usually include exclusive pictures of the band, fanart, fan letters and articles about general fanish projects such as lists of different fan clubs.
  • Good Day Sunshine Began in 1981 and contained content such as exclusive photos of the band, news, convention reports and bootlegged recordings.

Other Links



  • Another Kind of Mind - Self-described as "a collective of artists, musicians, and professionals who challenge established narratives about the band with irreverent commentary, educated criticism, and original, thought-provoking analysis". Hosted by Phoebe Lorde, Daphne Mitchell and Thalia Reynolds. Sister podcast with One Sweet Dream.
  • Beatles Books - Chats with Beatles authors and writers, begun in 2020.
  • Nothing Is Real - Discussion of Beatles music and history, begun in 2018.
  • One Sweet Dream - Self-described as "A fresh take on the music, people, and narrative of the Beatles. Diana Erickson is joined by a core group of contributors to discuss the Beatles through a new lens." Sister podcast with Another Kind of Mind.




  1. ^ The Rise of Beatlemania, Christine Feldman-Barrett, The Museum of Youth Culture
  2. ^ The Menace of Beatlism, Paul Johnson, The New Statesman, February 1964.
  3. ^ Lewis, Lisa A. (1992). The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular Media. Routledge. p. 84. ISBN 9780415078214. Archived from the original on 2021-11-03.
  4. ^ Beatlemania: Girls Just Want to Have Fun by Barbara Ehrenreich, Elizabeth Hess, and Gloria Jacobs; archivelink.
  5. ^ Let Us Now Praise Famous Men, Mim Udovitch, The New York Times, 8 October 2000.
  6. ^ mountainphile, from the How Will It End? Interview with mountainphile
  7. ^ TibbieB, from the Bay City Library Interview with TibbieB
  8. ^ Joolz, quoted in Band Fiction: Stranger than Truth
  9. ^ Gelder, Ken; Thornton, Sarah (1997). The Subcultures Reader. Psychology Press. p. 523. ISBN 978-0-415-12728-8.
  10. ^ Beatlemania: A Sexually Defiant Consumer Subculture by Barbara Ehrenreich; archivelink.
  11. ^ Announcement, Archived version by HMVNipper, forum post at, 12 September 2002.
  12. ^ The Beatles in the Tardis Wiki (accessed 21st September 2015)
  13. ^ Des Barres, Pamela (1987). I'm with the Band: Confessions of a Groupie. Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-55652-589-6.
  14. ^ comments by a fan in Strange Bedfellows #4
  15. ^ comments by Henry Jenkins in Strange Bedfellows #5
  16. ^ comments by a fan in Strange Bedfellows #5
  17. ^ comments by a fan in Strange Bedfellows #5
  18. ^ comment by baranduin on Ghosts of fandoms past
  19. ^ comment by Amanda Mae on Inside the World of Fan Fiction
  20. ^ Nightflier, from the Fan Fiction Oral History Project with Nightflier
  21. ^ See: Wikipedia:The Beatles in film
  22. ^ See: zanderbobs on tumblr, July 30, 2022, Archived version
  23. ^ Coppa, Francesca (2022). Vidding: A History. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-90259-0.
  24. ^ Interview with Kandy Fong by Francesca Coppa, in: TWC, Vol. 16 (2014)
  25. ^ Coppa, Francesca (2022). Vidding: A History. University of Michigan Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-472-90259-0.
  26. ^ The Beatles Posters. Accessed 5 Feb 2023.
  27. ^ Mills, Richard (2020). The Beatles and Fandom: Sex, Death and Progressive Nostalgia. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1-5013-4662-0.