Timeline of Tolkien Fandom

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Fandom: Tolkien
Dates: 1916-present
See also: The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion, The Hobbit

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Timeline of Tolkien fandom, from 1916 to present.


  • J.R.R. Tolkien started work on universe during World War I, while recovering from trench foot. Fanwriters sometimes write Tolkien at this stage of his life into fanfiction, imagining him being inspired by an Elf


  • August: Tolkien gave a lecture, later entitled 'The Secret Vice', on invented languages, revealing himself to be a practitioner & giving examples of his Elvish poetry[1]


  • February: The poem, 'The Adventures of Tom Bombadil', was the first Ardaverse work to appear in print
  • 'Firiel', another Ardaverse poem, was published


  • September: The Hobbit published in UK
  • October: C.S. Lewis reviewed The Hobbit in the TLS & The Times
  • December: Tolkien commenced sequel to The Hobbit, which grew into The Lord of the Rings
  • An early version of The Silmarillion rejected for publication


  • The Hobbit published in US


  • 'On Fairy-Stories' delivered as a lecture; it outlines Tolkien's philosophies of fantasy


  • January: 'Leaf by Niggle' published; although not part of the Ardaverse, it describes Tolkien's method of composition


  • The Hobbit was translated into Swedish; the first non-English publication of any of Tolkien's works


  • October: 'Farmer Giles of Ham' published; although not part of the Ardaverse, it appears in early fanfiction & was a frequent subject of discussion in the early fandom


  • April: The Lord of the Rings & The Silmarillion rejected for joint publication


  • July/November: The Fellowship of the Ring & The Two Towers published in the UK; the first two volumes of The Lord of the Rings
  • Initial critical reception generally positive; W.H. Auden compared The Fellowship to The Thirty-Nine Steps as a page-turner


  • October: The Return of the King published in the UK; the third & final volume of The Lord of the Rings
  • November–December: BBC radio dramatisation of The Fellowship broadcast in the UK on Radio 3 in six episodes (now lost)
  • US publication of the trilogy began


  • April: Main negative review was by Edmund Wilson in 'Oo, these awful orcs', who considered The Fellowship unsuitable for adults,[2] a charge laid many times since at fannish engagement with the books
  • November–December: BBC radio dramatisation of Two Towers & Return of the King broadcast in the UK on Radio 3 in six episodes (now lost); more abridged than the earlier part
  • US publication of the trilogy concluded


  • September: Tolkien won the International Fantasy Award for The Lord of the Rings
  • Arthur R. "Doc" Weir wrote A Study of the "Hithlain" of the Wood-Elves of Lórien, a fanfic about the origin and development of hithlain. The typescript resides in the Special Collections & University Archives of the University of California at Riverside.


  • Costuming was an early fannish activity, with fans appearing in Tolkien-inspired costumes at Worldcon by this date.[3]



I Palantir 1 cover, by John Harness
  • August: 'Departure in Peace' by George Heap, in I Palantir, was the first known work of Tolkien fanfiction to be published. It is a personal account of events by Sauron, spanning the First to the Fourth Ages[3]
  • September: The Fellowship of the Ring, the first known Tolkien fanclub, held its first meeting at Worldcon in Pittsburgh, US. The name of the club was controversial and generated much discussion. It published I Palantir and provided prizes for Tolkien art in Worldcon artshows[3]
  • November: Eldritch Dream Quest, a Sword & Sorcery zine founded; it included substantial amounts of Tolkien discussion from the first issue[3]
  • Nazgul's Bane, the first British fanzine, was founded sometime between September and January 1961; it was edited by Ken Cheslin and was associated with the British subgroup of The Fellowship of the Ring fanclub[3]
  • Starting in the 1960s (and stretching into the 1970s), the phrase Frodo Lives! began to appear as graffiti on American college campuses. The phrase may have carried multiple meanings, including the belief that Frodo would not die after going into the West, that Tolkien's works lived on in his fans, and even a show of faith that Frodo and Sam would prevail in destroying the One Ring. Since not every potential reader on campus had read the book, the phrase was, in its own way, an early spoiler. It also began appearing on t-shirts, buttons, and posters and was adopted by the hippie counter culture movement of the 60s and 70s[4]


  • March: Ancalagon zine founded; contained substantial Tolkien discussion from the first issue[3]
  • May: Men, Halflings & Hero Worship, an essay by Marion Zimmer Bradley, published in the sf zine Astra's Tower. It comments on the dearth of women in Lord of the Rings[5] and describes most of the relationships in The Lord of the Rings as adolescent hero worship[3]
  • August: The Jewel of Arwen by Marion Zimmer Bradley was published in I Palantir 2. This fanfiction describes the history of the white stone that Arwen gives to Frodo in Return of the King
  • August: 'High Fly the Nazgul, Oh!', a filksong by Ted Johnstone & others to the tune of 'Green Grow the Rushes, Oh!', was published in I Palantir 2; the first known Tolkien filk
Artwork for 'A Meeting in the Hyades'
  • August: 'Haiku Portraits' by Ted Johnstone, Don Studebaker & others, was published in I Palantir 2; they were written in Tolkien's Tengwar runes
  • August: The Fellowship of the Ring fanclub had 37 members[3]
  • November: Lin Carter published the first of a series of essays entitled 'Notes on Tolkien' in Xero 7
  • A Meeting in the Hyades by Marion Zimmer Bradley published as a standalone. It is a crossover between Lord of the Rings and an early version of Darkover, involving Aragorn.[3] Though sometimes cited as the first Tolkien fanfiction, an earlier work was published in 1960.[3] However, Zimmer Bradley later stated that the story was written in 1954 or 1955[6]
  • 'Sex in Science Fiction' by Marion Zimmer Bradley published. Article discussing sf including Tolkien, with examples of Aragorn & Éowyn and Frodo & Sam; she considered the latter relationship not to be homosexual[3]


  • January: 'A Report on the Psychology and Physiology of Homo Elvis (or Elfridis)' by Marion Zimmer Bradley, an essay on Elf biology, including reproduction, published in Cry 156
  • January: 'A Hard Look Through the "Ring"' by Hanna Mayhew & Larry McCombs, a critical review of Lord of the Rings, published in Gaul v. 2:1, in which they accuse Tolkien of creating cardboard characters. It generated much discussion in subsequent issues of the zine[3]
  • spring: Bastion 2 published with several Tolkien artworks by Jim Cawthorn
  • June: Niekas first published; long-running anthology genzine containing nonfiction & art, edited by Ed Meskys
  • summer: Andúril published. Ed Meskys, editor of Niekas, calls this the first Tolkien fanzine ever,[7] although earlier Tolkien anthologies containing fanfiction & fan poetry had appeared from 1960. It republished Marion Zimmer Bradley's story, A Meeting in the Hyades and included art depicting Aragorn by Juanita Coulson. Nonfiction content included essays on the origin of orcs (David Bradley), Arwen's choice (Rick Sneary), marriages between Elves & men (Elinor Busby), and a description of costumes at Worldcon (Ruth Berman)
  • October: 'A Glossary of Middle-Earth' by Al Halevy, a glossary of hobbit characters from The Hobbit & Lord of the Rings, published in Rhodomagnetic Digest v. 5:2
  • November: The Adventures of Tom Bombadil published; a collection of Tolkien's poetry partly set in the Ardaverse. Although relatively little known it includes a few unique geographical details, as well as further insight into Tolkien's poetry style


  • March: LOC by John Boardman discussing racism in Lord of the Rings, published in Xero 10
  • 'A Concordance to The Lord of the Rings' by Edwin Joseph Baker, first part of a name concordance, covering A–F
  • Leslie Fish writes her first filksong, "Fellowship Going South."


  • March: 'The Orcs' Marching Song' by George Heap, a filksong to the 'The Ballad of Jesse James', published in Niekas 8
  • April: The Parting of Arwen by Marion Zimmer Bradley, a fanfiction about Arwen's parting from Elrond, published in I Palantir 3
  • April: 'Haiku Portraits' by Ted Johnstone, Don Studebaker & others, published in I Palantir 3; they were written in Tolkien's Tengwar runes
  • April: 'The Watcher in the Water and Others' by Dainis Bisenieks, an essay on evil in Lord of the Rings, published in I Palantir 3; it draws on H.P. Lovecraft[3]
  • May: Tree and Leaf published in the UK; the original edition contained the story 'Leaf by Niggle' & the essay 'On Fairy-Stories' which together outline Tolkien's philosophy of fantasy and the creative process
  • August: 'Hello Frodo, or What Ever Happened to Sauron's Ring' by Kathleen Huber, a one-act musical with fourteen songs, published in I Palantir 4
  • December: 'Song of the Ring' by Roger Zelazny, a poem from the point of view of the Ring, published in Niekas 10
  • December: 'A Glossary of Middle Earth' by Al Halevy, a compendium of all the Dwarven characters in The Hobbit & Lord of the Rings, published in Niekas 10


Entmoot 2 cover
  • February: Tolkien Society of America founded by Dick Plotz & others
  • May/July: First paperback edition of The Lord of the Rings, a boot-legged version by Ace Books, published in the US
  • June: Entmoot founded; an early anthology zine, containing mainly nonfiction and poetry. Described as the leading exponent in the US of the psychedelic-hippie side of Tolkien fandom[8]


  • June: 12-minute film produced of The Hobbit
  • September: The Tolkien Reader published in the US; it included Tree and Leaf, 'Farmer Giles of Ham' & 'The Adventures of Tom Bombadil'


  • July: The Ballad of Bilbo Baggins by Charles Randolph Green, a retelling of The Hobbit, was performed by Leonard Nimoy on the television show Malibu U; it later achieved cult status
  • October: The Road Goes Ever On published in the US; an Ardaverse song book co-written with Donald Swann
  • November: 'Smith of Wootton Major' published; a short story not directly linked with the Ardaverse
  • The record Poems and Songs of Middle Earth released; side 1 contained Tolkien's readings of poems from The Adventures of Tom Bombadil & side 2 had performances of songs from The Road Goes Ever On
  • Mythopoeic Society founded for Tolkien, C.S. Lewis (creator of the Narnia series) and other Inklings
  • There and Back Again fanclub founded; a strange joint fanclub with Star Trek: The Original Series
  • Bags End Gazette founded; an early nonfiction fanzine of the There and Back Again club
  • Minas Tirith Evening-Star founded; later the journal of the American Tolkien Society


  • March: Tolkien in Oxford documentary broadcast in the UK on BBC2. It contained interview footage with Tolkien, including discussion of Elvish languages & Black Speech. It also included short clips of fans
  • June: Hoom genzine founded; the zine carried articles, reviews, fan poetry & fan art
  • September–November: The Hobbit is dramatised on BBC Radio 4 as eight half-hour episodes
  • October: Middle Earthworm founded; an early newsletter
  • The Tolkien Society of Sweden founded; the first fanclub in Europe
  • Tolkien and the Critics: Essays on J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings published; a collection of critical essays


  • January: Mythlore, the journal of the Mythopoeic Society, founded for academic articles on the works of Tolkien, C.S. Lewis & other fantasy authors
  • March: Tolkien: A Look Behind "The Lord of the Rings" by Lin Carter was one of the earliest book-length critical studies of The Lord of the Rings, comparing it with earlier works of epic fantasy[9]
  • April: Conference On Middle-Earth 1
  • November: The Tolkien Society was founded in the UK as a response to the appropriation of Tolkien's works by the wilder fringes of the hippie movement[10]
  • Bored of the Rings parody published


  • September: Mythcon founded
  • October: Mallorn founded by The Tolkien Society, initially as the society's newsletter but later as an academic journal
  • The word 'hobbit' entered the Oxford English Dictionary, a measure of the popularity of Tolkien's works



Amon Hen 36 cover (1978)
  • February: Nazgul gen anthology zine founded
  • Amon Hen newsletter founded
  • The Swedish Tolkien society Forodrim founded; another early European fanclub
  • Tolkien Society of America merged with the Mythopoeic Society
  • 'A Glossary of the Eldarin Tongues' published by James D. Allan
  • Tolkien references had penetrated non-fannish circles in North America; for example, a Queen's University cooperative student residence built in 1972 was named after Elrond, whose house was "a cure for weariness, fear, and sadness," apparently with permission from Tolkien[11][12]


  • September: Death of J.R.R. Tolkien


  • September: Oxonmoot founded as the annual convention of The Tolkien Society
  • November: The poem 'Bilbo's Last Song' published in poster format, illustrated by Pauline Baynes
  • The Languages of Tolkien's Middle-earth by Ruth S. Noel published; an early guide to Tolkien's invented languages, a hot topic for fannish engagement from the outset
  • Abridged reading of The Hobbit by Nicol Williamson was the first audiobook of Tolkien's works
  • Mithrandir by Stephen O. Miller, a one-off zine about wizards, published


  • June: A Tolkien Compass, a book of critical essays, published; the first edition (but not subsequent ones) contained Tolkien's 'Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings'
  • American Tolkien Society founded; the second national fanclub for the US
  • 'The Siege of Minas Tirith' board game released
  • First Russian translation of The Lord of the Rings is made by A.A. Gruzberg in Perm


  • The Tolkien Companion by J.E.A. Tyler published


Cover of a 1979 Annúminas
  • May: J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography by Humphrey Carpenter published in the UK; usually considered the definitive biography
  • May: Annúminas fanzine founded; it was a publication of the American Hobbit Association and carried articles, fan poetry & fan art. Later became The Rivendell Review
  • September: The Silmarillion published, edited from Tolkien's extensive unpublished material by his son, Christopher Tolkien. It contains a creation myth, details of the Valar & Maiar (gods & demi-gods), an account of the Time of the Trees and the First Age, focusing on the many wars fought over the three Silmarils, and the story of the downfall of Númenor, Tolkien's Atlantis
  • November: The Hobbit animated film (Rankin/Bass) released in the US on video
  • American Hobbit Association founded


  • November: Ralph Bakshi animated film of Fellowship of the Ring & The Two Towers opened in the US
  • December: The Tolkien Scrapbook published; much of the book was entitled 'Frodo Lives: A Look at Tolkien Fandom' and contained essays about fandom or by fans about canon, poetry & filks, much of which was reprinted from early fanzines
  • Tolkien Week founded by the American Tolkien Society


  • October: The Hobbit read as a special 10-part series on popular children's television programme Jackanory (BBC), for their 3000th episode. The readers were Bernard Cribbens, Maurice Denham, Jan Francis & David Wood
  • November: Pictures by J.R.R. Tolkien published, with artwork by Tolkien
  • Radio dramatisation of Lord of the Rings by The Mind's Eye broadcast in the US on NPR in 24 episodes; the total length was ~11 hours. A faithful adaptation, it was one of the few to include Tom Bombadil. While popular & well received at the time, it was overshadowed by the 1981 BBC radio production. The same team produced The Hobbit later in the year
  • First paperback edition of The Silmarillion
  • A Tolkien Bestiary by David Day published, mainly enjoyed by fans for its illustrations
  • Early Tolkien-based computer games, mainly text adventures[13]


  • May: The Return of the King animated film (Rankin/Bass) released on video
  • May: Poems and Stories published; reprinted Tolkien's poems and short stories with illustrations by Pauline Baynes
  • October: Unfinished Tales published, another extract from Tolkien's unpublished writings edited by Christopher Tolkien. It contains much material of interest to fans, including expanded versions of the tales of Tuor, the children of Húrin, Galadriel & Celeborn, and the death of Isildur, plus detailed information about Númenor including a map, the foundation of Rohan, the backstory of the wizards, and the palantíri
  • Quettar, linguistic journal of The Tolkien Society, founded


  • March–August: BBC radio dramatisation of Lord of the Rings broadcast in the UK in 26 30-minute episodes. It starred Ian Holm as Frodo, later Bilbo in the Jackson films. A reasonably faithful adaptation, except for the omission of Tom Bombadil, it was very well received, and versions of it were the first introduction to the book for some fans
  • March: Beyond Bree founded; fanzine of the Tolkien Special Interest Group of American Mensa
  • August: The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien published; source for various snippets of canon information, including the fact that hobbits have slightly pointed ears, which are not otherwise mentioned[14]
  • September: Arthedain, the Norwegian Tolkien Society, was founded
  • September: Unquendor, the Dutch Tolkien Society, was founded
  • The Atlas of Middle-earth by Karen Wynn Fonstad published; one of the major Tolkien atlases, with maps for The Hobbit, Lord of the Rings & The Silmarillion
  • Journeys of Frodo: An Atlas of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings by Barbara Strachey published; detailed maps for the Quest
  • Shiro No Norite, the Japanese Tolkien Society, founded
  • Elanor, Japanese-language newsletter of Shiro No Norite, founded


  • July–October: Edited version of the BBC radio Lord of the Rings series was repeated in the UK in 13 hour-long episodes, including some extra material. This version was released on cassette [date?] and later on CD
  • September: Mr. Bliss published, a short children's story written & illustrated by Tolkien; although unrelated to the Ardaverse, it was popular with some fans
  • BBC radio Lord of the Rings series broadcast in Canada, US & Australia
  • The Road to Middle-earth by Tom Shippey was an influential work of Tolkien criticism
  • Video game based on The Hobbit released; the first authorised game
  • Middle-earth Role Playing (MERP) started with the publication of the first of a long series of guides
  • The Fellowship of the Ring is translated into Russian by V. Muravjev and A. Kistjakovsky. Earlier, people smuggled English editions from abroad and made photocopies. Most of the derivative texts in pre-Internet days in Russia are poems and songs (non-filk mostly)


  • January: First issue of Anor, the Cambridge Tolkien Society's zine, appeared
  • March: The Monsters and the Critics, a collection of Tolkien's essays, published; it included some unpublished material
  • October: The Book of Lost Tales I was the first of the 12-volume History of Middle-earth (HoMe) series, more extracts from Tolkien's unpublished writings, edited by Christopher Tolkien. The two volumes of Lost Tales contain Tolkien's earliest version of the Silmarillion dating back to 1916–17; some fans preferred this version[15]


  • February: The Book of Lost Tales I published in the US; most subsequent HoMe volumes appeared in the US in the year of first publication
  • August: The Book of Lost Tales II (HoMe vol 2) published


  • August: The Lays of Beleriand (HoMe vol 3) published; contains 'The Lay of the Children of Hurin' & 'The Lay of Leithian', verse forms of tales from the Silmarillion, and was one of the most popular HoMe volumes
  • Polish Tolkien Society (Sekcja Tolkienowska Śląskiego Klubu Fantastyki) founded
  • Lord of the Rings: Game One released; an authorised video game based on Lord of the Rings
  • Metal miniatures released for Lord of the Rings role-playing games


  • March: Eredain, the Swiss Tolkien Society, founded
  • August: The Shaping of Middle-earth (HoMe vol 4); another Silmarillion-centric volume, including Tolkien's thoughts on the physical form of Middle-earth, illustrated with diagrams


  • August: The Lost Road and Other Writings (HoMe vol 5); another Silmarillion-centric volume, containing more Númenorean history & Tolkien's dictionary of Elvish languages. It is the source for Elves having pointed ears[14]
  • Mithril Miniatures founded; it produced metal miniatures based on Tolkien's characters


  • August: The Return of the Shadow (HoMe vol 6). Volumes 6–9 of HoMe contain Tolkien's drafts of The Lord of the Rings, and tend to be less interesting to fans
  • September: Vinyar Tengwar, journal of the Elvish Linguistic Fellowship, founded
  • October: The Annotated Hobbit published in the US; an edition of The Hobbit with commentary by Douglas A. Anderson
  • Symphony No. 1 "The Lord of the Rings" by Johan de Meij premiered; an example of classical music directly inspired by Lord of the Rings
  • Elvish Linguistic Fellowship (ELF) founded as the linguistic subgroup of the Mythopoeic Society
  • J.R.R. Tolkien's War in Middle Earth video game published


  • March: Heren Hyarmeno, the Brazilian Tolkien Society, founded
  • September: The Treason of Isengard (HoMe vol 7) published
  • Graphic novel of The Hobbit published in three parts


Cover of a 1994 Miruvor, typical of clubzines of the era
  • spring: Miruvor, fanzine of the Oxford Tolkien Society (a smial of The Tolkien Society), was founded. It published fan fiction, fan poetry & articles
  • August: The War of the Ring (HoMe vol 8) published
  • November: TolkLang mailing list on Tolkien's languages founded by Julian Bradfield; a very early example of a fannish mailing list
  • J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, Vol. I video game released
  • First Tolkien RPGHobbitskie Igrisha (Hobbit Games). "The RPGs were extremely popular in Russia, partly due to the thoughtful organization. The participants were mostly intellectuals in their 20's to 40's, who gathered in forests or fields and played according to fixed rules for a couple of days. The biggest RPGs had hundreds of participants. The group bonding and feeling of complete immersion into a different reality were unique." [16]




  • January: Imladris, the second Danish Tolkien Society, founded; later that year it merged with Tolkiens Følge
  • April: Other Hands, magazine for Middle-earth Role Playing, founded
  • September: Morgoth's Ring (HoMe vol 10); first of two volumes on the development of The Silmarillion after the publication of Lord of the Rings
  • November: The JRR Tolkien Information Page (link) founded; a website by Eric Lippert aiming to act as a directory for online Tolkien sites
  • November: Magyar Tolkien Társaság, the Hungarian Tolkien Society, founded
  • Athelas, Danish-language journal of Imladris, the Danish Tolkien Society, founded
  • rec.arts.books.tolkien newsgroup founded
  • Nik Perumov's profic Nishozhdenie T'my ili Sredizem'je 300 let spustja (The Fall of Darkness or Middle-Earth 300 years later) – now usually known as Kol'co T'my (The Ring of Darkness) – is officially published


  • March (or earlier): the rec.arts.books.tolkien newsgroup maintained a FAQ page including links to other Tolkien sites
  • July: Tyalië Tyelelliéva, a journal about Tolkien linguistics, founded. It included fan poetry & art
  • October: The War of the Jewels (HoMe vol 11) published
  • First fics in Russian are published in local networks (FIDO); mostly they are missing scenes texts dealing with Tolkien's mythology and universe well beyond Lord of the Rings. It's mostly gen: adventures and myths. Writers avoid calling their texts "fanfiction", reserving this term for fluffy romances, and use the word "apocryphs" instead


  • October: First Elvish Language Poetry Prize awarded; the competition included all types of fanwork in any of Tolkien's invented languages[17]
  • Personal websites began to spring up, with art, information & opinion
  • Tolkien Ensemble musical group founded in Denmark to interpret Tolkien's poetry & songs
  • Middle-earth Collectible Card Game released
  • Chernaja kniga Ardy (The Black Book of Arda) is published. "The ground-breaking Russian fanfic was written by Niennah (Natalia Vassilieva) ... This was the first fic written from the perspective of the "Evil" – Silmarillion's Melkor (Morgoth). It caused a big wave of more subversive fanfiction which romanticized Evil, and remains influential till now."[18]




  • August: Lord of the Rings know all Club was one of the earliest discussion lists on Yahoo/eGroups/similar services
  • August: New Line announced live-action film of Lord of the Rings; fannish sites soon sprang up to discuss possible casting
  • September: Elfling, a Tolkien language mailing list, founded
  • October: Two other early Yahoo discussion lists were founded, The High Elves & lotr
  • New illustrated edition of The Silmarillion published, with colour illustrations by Ted Nasmith


  • January: Ardalambion founded; fansite for Tolkien's languages by Helge Fauskanger
  • January: lordoftheringstrilogy claims to be the longest-running Yahoo list for the films; several similar discussion groups swiftly followed
  • July: Tolkien Thing, the annual meeting of the German Tolkien Society, founded
  • September: Tolkien Slash mailing list founded on eGroups
  • October: Filming began on Peter Jackson's Lord of the Rings film trilogy amid intense fannish interest
  • October: Hiswelókë's Sindarin dictionary founded; an online dictionary


  • April: TheOneRing.net (TORn) fansite founded; one of the earliest discussion communities, with forums & news
  • May: MinasTirith.com founded; another early discussion community
  • August: Earliest Lord of the Rings fanfiction at fanfiction.net
  • September: Earliest Silmarillion fanfiction at fanfiction.net
  • September: J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century published; another widely read work by Tom Shippey
  • A new German translation of The Lord of the Rings by Wolfgang Krege was published. It was widely criticised and mocked by fans, particularly for using 1990s slang
  • Lord of the Rings board game released


  • January: The Starlit Jewel; authorised fan CD of Tolkien's songs
  • January: Sociedad Tolkien Peruana, the Tolkien Society of Peru, founded
  • LOTR Fanfiction Sites webring established by mid-2001
  • November: silmarillion discussion livejournal founded
  • December: Fellowship of the Ring; the first of the Peter Jackson film trilogy
  • Unabridged audiobook of The Fellowship of the Ring read by Rob Inglis was the first unabridged audiobook of The Lord of the Rings
  • Least Expected slash archive for the tolkien_slash eGroups list; the archivist was Amy Fortuna. Possibly the first Tolkien slash archive on the net?
  • Jude's Tolkien Slash-Project founded. Originally, the site was initiated for translations, but very soon Russian-language slash was flourishing, too – which led to serious confrontations with a "mainstream" part of Russian fandom, currently focused at henneth-annun.ru


Library of Moria logo; like many post-film fanworks, it uses a film image
Roaring Ring cover by Cherry Beans & Love + Love. Some doujinshi were based on the actors' appearances, others not so much
  • April: LOTR Adult Fiction list founded
  • May: Pretty Good Year by Mary Borsellino completed; popular Frodo/Sam/Rosie threesome novel
  • June: Henneth Annun Story Archive founded
  • June: Whether or No archive founded
  • June: Melethryn Elfslash Archive founded
  • August: The History of Middle-earth Index published; index to the 12 volumes of HoMe
  • September: The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring video game released in the US
  • October: Ellinikós Sýllogos Philon Tólkin, the Greek Tolkien Society, founded
  • October: Espresso Recommendations founded
  • October: The One Ring Challenge
  • November: Ring*Con founded; German convention
  • November: Extended edition of The Fellowship of the Ring film released on DVD, with 30 minutes of extra footage & many extras
  • December: The Two Towers; second of Peter Jackson film trilogy
  • BBC radio dramatisation (1981) re-broadcast in the UK in the 13-episode version; a newly edited version was released on CD
  • First unabridged audiobooks of The Two Towers, The Return of the King & The Hobbit, read by Rob Inglis, and of The Silmarillion, read by Martin Shaw
  • Lord of the Rings doujinshi began to appear, both gen & yaoi [which was the first?] (see list)
  • Of Elves and Men slash archive founded


The Mithril Awards banners, unlike many other awards, did not use film images


  • January: Results of first round of My Precious Awards
  • February: Fans partied as Return of the King film won many Academy Awards
The MEFAs were the longest-running online fanfiction awards
  • April: Middle-Earth Fanfiction Awards (MEFAs) founded
  • April: Tolkien Studies journal founded
  • May: The first TolCon convention was held
  • June: The Lord of the Rings Symphony by Howard Shore premiered; an arrangement of the music from the Peter Jackson films
  • July: Lotrfanfiction.com archive opened
  • July: Tolkien Fan Fiction Archive archive opened
  • September: When a Fan Hits the Shit published, about the Victoria Bitter scam
  • December: Extended edition of The Return of the King film released on DVD, with 52 minutes of extra footage & many extras
  • Russian animated version of children's story Mr Bliss produced by fans
  • Aiglos, fanzine of the Polish Tolkien Society, founded


Interior art from Nenya by Lorraine Brevig, typical of the actor-based fan art of this period



  • June: Silmarillion Writers' Guild archive opened
  • April: The Children of Húrin published
  • May: The History of The Hobbit published; contains information on Tolkien's drafts of The Hobbit, similar to the HoMe series
  • June: The Peril to the Shire fan film premiered
  • December: The Hobbit films announced
  • Unabridged audiobook of The Children of Húrin, read by Christopher Lee & Christopher Tolkien, released


  • April: Guillermo del Toro, director of Pan's Labyrinth, announced as the director of The Hobbit film, a popular choice with fans



  • May: Guillermo del Toro left The Hobbit films project
  • August: Tolkien in Oxford 1968 BBC2 documentary released on the BBC website
  • October: Peter Jackson announced as new director of The Hobbit films project




  • December: The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug, second film in Peter Jackson's The Hobbit trilogy, premiered



  • March: There was an extensive discussion after the Tolkien Estate updated their "FAQ",[19]; while there was no significant change in the Estate's policy, discussions of the legality of Tolkien-based fanworks occurred across several platforms (see Tolkien Fanfiction for more).


  1. ^ JRR Tolkien. A Secret Vice (accessed 10 September 2012)
  2. ^ The Nation: Oo, these awful orcs (accessed 7 September 2012)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Sumner Gary Hunnewell. Tolkien Fandom Review: From its Beginnings to 1964 (accessed 7 September 2012)
  4. ^ Wikipedia entry on Frodo Lives!], accessed September 23, 2012.
  5. ^ Men, Halflings & Hero Worship: eBook (accessed 6 September 2012)
  6. ^ Starstone p.27, see File:Starstone1inside5.jpg (Accessed 06 September 2012)
  7. ^ Tolkien Collector's Guide: Anduril (accessed 6 September 2012)
  8. ^ Tolkien Collector's Guide: Entmoot (accessed 6 September 2012)
  9. ^ Nicholas Whyte. Review of 2003 republication (accessed 6 September 2012)
  10. ^ The Tolkien Society: Vera Chapman (accessed 6 September 2012)
  11. ^ Queen's Encyclopedia: Princess Towers (accessed 6 September 2012)
  12. ^ Greer Watson, personal recollection
  13. ^ Tolkien computer games pages: Chronological list of Tolkien computer games (accessed 6 September 2012) (via WBM)
  14. ^ a b The Tolkien Society: Frequently Asked Questions (accessed 6 September 2012)
  15. ^ The hypertextualized Tolkien FAQ: Books by J.R.R. Tolkien (accessed 7 September 2012) (via WBM)
  16. ^ A History of Russian-Language Fanfiction
  17. ^ Elvish Language Poetry Prize (accessed 8 September 2012)
  18. ^ from A History of Russian-Language Fanfiction
  19. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions and Links - The Tolkien Estate". 2022-03-09. Archived from the original on 2022-03-09.