Homestuck

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Fandom
Name: Homestuck
Abbreviation(s): HS
Creator: Andrew Hussie
Date(s): April 2009–October 2016; Epilogues: April 2018–December 2018
Medium: Webcomic
Country of Origin: U.S.
External Links: www.homestuck.com
Click here for related articles on Fanlore.

Homestuck is a webcomic by Andrew Hussie. It is the fourth MS Paint Adventure, and by far the largest and most notable with 8,124 pages. It started on the 10th of April, 2009.[1] It became a Fandom That Ate Fandom, inspiring an extremely wide range of fanworks, activities, and drama, and arguably changing the landscape of fandom and online culture forever.

After Homestuck's end, What Pumpkin Studios created works set in the same universes: video games Hiveswap in 2017 and Hiveswap Friendsim in 2018; and semi-canon sequels, The Homestuck Epilogues and Homestuck^2: Beyond Canon in 2019.

And finally, a quote from Hussie himself: "I don't actually like the Internet." [2]

Canon-Fandom Relationship

Initially, Homestuck was developed as an interactive quest, modelled after old-school adventure games, allowing readers to submit commands. However, by 2010, the fanbase had grown significantly[3], and Hussie found that reader commands were "too unwieldy and made it difficult... to tell a coherent story." Despite closing submissions for reader commands, he still "visit[ed] fan blogs and forums" to figure out small things to add into Homestuck.[4]

The canon interacted unconventionally with the Fourth Wall. Fan music and art contributions appeared in canon, as did references to Tumblr, shipping, furries, and fanon. The villain Caliborn resembles a caricature of "bad fans" in contrast to enthusiastic fan artist Calliope. Caliborn has a real Deviantart and commented on a fanartist's work.[5] Eventually, the MSPA Reader became a canon character.

Homestuck fandom developed an unusual "update culture" in response to the unpredictable schedule and plot. The comic had no consistent schedule, updating frequently at some points while having long hiatuses at others. The uncertain pace of the story is credited for the fandom's dramatic booms and lulls in content, as well as reactions to story developments. As cancerously put it:

One day could be an update dropped at 5 AM EST that was two kids pelting each other with fruit. 4 hours later we could get a flash that killed 17 people. Then it could be THREE DAYS before another update where haha it was retconned that was a dream none of those people are dead. [...]

The thing with update culture is that most content creators are aware of, and plan content updates around, the idea of what the fans will be feeling and thinking once that content is done being distributed. For TV shows, episodes are released with beginnings, middles, and ends- a narrative arc that allows people to start thinking about media the way the creator wants them to, leading them along with little trails of plot and puzzles to solve. But Homestuck’s updates weren’t planned like that, because they came in chunks of whenever it was done, a carry-over from the original Choose-Your-Own-Adventure format. Because of this, people were theorizing about thing that’d be fixed in the literal next page, but because we didn’t have that information, the weirdest shit started being produced.[6]

Canon Overview

Homestuck begins with four children, John Egbert, Rose Lalonde, Dave Strider, and Jade Harley, who play a reality-altering video game that brings about the end of their world. The adventure is characterized by time travel, mystery, pop culture references, and numerous gory deaths. The cast later expands to include dozens of aliens, alternate versions of the kids and their guardians, various eldritch horrors and strange beasts, and meta characters such as the author himself. The game is played multiple times, plot threads are tied into Gordian knots of confusion and hacked apart, and many incredibly self-indulgent tangents are embarked upon.

The webcomic consists of six acts of increasing length, totaling over 8,000 pages. Homestuck has also expanded into a franchise with tie-ins and continuations in a number of mediums - see Homestuck content below.

See List of Homestuck Terminology

Characters

Homestuck content

Though the most significant piece of Homestuck canon is the webcomic, there are multiple stories set in the same universe, variably considered canon.

Side Content

The following properties are relevant to Homestuck but not considered canon.

  • Paradox Space comics, written by various authors and artists to be canon compliant with Homestuck.
  • MS Paint Adventures written prior to Homestuck.
  • Assorted works by Andrew Hussie prior to and after MSpaintadventures.com
  • Namco High, a freemium browser-based dating sim featuring characters from Namco Bandai's video game franchises. Andrew Hussie was the project's creative director, and three Homestuck characters were included, Terezi Pyrope, Jane Crocker, and Davesprite.
  • SkaiaNet, a series of writings by Andrew Hussie relating to Homestuck, posted on January 1, 2019 and retracted almost immediately after.

Fandom

Homestuck has a reputation as a difficult read for several reasons. The beginning is heavily gag-oriented and the plot is slow to start, absent many of the popular aspects recommenders may have mentioned. The comic is extremely long and the plot severely convoluted, with numerous characters, timelines, and universes.[7] The size and rich history of the fandom, encompassing huge quantities of fandom meta and fanworks spread over multiple sites, as well as years of complicated, wanky fandom history, are also intimidating[8]. It is also worth noting that large swathes of Homestuck discussion, fanworks, and history are no longer accessible, due to the forum outage and various other events.

Additionally, Homestuck has many passive fans who enjoy the comic but participate little in the fandom. These fans rarely participate in the intense, complicated theorization common on parts of Tumblr and the MSPA forums.[9]

Many Homestuck fans have pseudonyms based on the characters' chat handles in canon, two words in camelcase, usually (but not always) following the pattern adjectiveNoun. Initials are often chosen for some significance and/or used as a shortened form of address. For example, Calliope's handle is uranianUmbra, or UU.

Shipping

Almost every imaginable ship exists somewhere in Homestuck fandom. Stories often deal with interspecies romance in various ways.

Some popular pairings include:

Shipping terminology can be found at the List of Homestuck pairings.

See Quadrants to understand the troll romance system and fandom reaction to it.

Fandom History

Early History

The early fandom of Homestuck originated on the MSPA Forums, which originally housed the suggestion boxes from which Hussie would take suggestions for the next action in his story. As Hussie began incorporating musical flashes into the story, it also housed the "secret" music forum, and members of the music team were selected from friends and fans who had posted their music to the forums.

Homestuck also has a long-running thread on the Penny Arcade forum, as well as several on both 4chan and plus4chan. Content was mostly created on the forums and reposted nonymously over on the chans. Most of the fanworks were fanart or fan music, though there was a very small fanfiction thread and a growing number of voice actors.

In the early months of 2010, Homestuck began to grow in popularity. On April 13th, 2010, Andrew Hussie posted the end of act 4 comic, "[S] Descend", which was an ambitious four-minute thirteen-second flash movie. It was the second of the flashes to use art elements from the new art team, staffed again by friends of Hussie's and notable artists from the forum. The unusual nature of the flash drew high viewer traffic. Act 5 Part 1, or "Hivebent," which began on June 12, 2010, drew in still more new readers, since it didn't require knowledge of previous canon to enjoy.

See Cascade (Homestuck)

On October 25, 2011 Andrew Hussie updated Homestuck with an flash movie, "[S] Cascade", after a hiatus of more than a month. So many fans tried to watch it at the same time that it caused multiple crashes.

The forum's rules strictly forbid any pornography, and in the case of the child characters, anything pairing them with an adult (even in a worksafe fashion) is an infractable offense. In response, someone created MSPAchan, which allowed adult art and fic. Soon afterwards, zombiesauros created Homesmut in July of 2010[10], as a home for the kink meme and as a hub for people looking for adult fic and art. As these memes could not even be mentioned by forum rules, Sockpuppy also created Captchalogue, the worksafe request meme. While the worksafe meme has little traffic, the kink meme is hugely popular, currently gaining about 300 comments a day.[11]

Post-Cascade Popularity

After the events of [S] Cascade's release, Homestuck fandom exploded in size and popularity. It gained sizeable presence on deviantArt, Livejournal, Tumblr, the Archive of Our Own, Facebook, and miscellaneous smaller sites. Due to its massive, diffused nature, overlap with English-speaking anime/manga fandoms, 4chan origins and large presence on Tumblr, Homestuck fandom does not have a very strong credit culture. It is common to see art reblogged or reposted without credit, and icons, banners, and mix artwork are frequently unattributed.[12]

Because HS fandom is so sprawling, sectioned, and diverse, it is difficult to track or come to consensus about who are or were the BNFs. Many members of the official art and music teams interacted freely with the fandom and became fairly well known. BNFs with no involvement in the canon include voice actor Octopimp, writer urbanAnchorite, writer and fanartist roachpatrol, writer JumpingJackFlash, and Kagerou Luka Delaney webcomic author VastDerp. Others of note are Radiation, Bowman, Lexxy and SkepticArcher (members of an art and music team), along with voice actor Von Fawn.

Addition to this list, or discussion of it on the talk page by interested parties would be appreciated.

With the influx of new fans and subsequent flooding of sites with Homestuck related content, Homestuck gained a large anti-fandom. Many anime fans reacted negatively to Homestuck fans' presence at conventions and online. People outside the Homestuck fandom have sometimes been known to be annoyed by the frequency and over-enthusiasm of some Homestuck fans.[13]).

Since the flash videos became longer and more complicated, fans started to record and share reaction videos.[14] Flash videos sometimes inspire a variety of episode tags. Anticipated events (like the Scratch at the end of Act 5) also often lead to much speculating and fic.

For more, see the Further Reading section.

Ending to Present Day

Homestuck ended on October 25th, 2016 with the completion of Act 7 and the Credits. Since then, there have been a number of developments with the MSPA and Homestuck properties.

  • September 2017
    • Funded by Kickstarter, the first of four Hiveswap games was released.[15]. The game was developed and published through Hussie's own development company, What Pumpkin Studios NYC.
    • Viz Media gained the publishing rights to Homestuck.
  • April 2018
    • Homestuck moved from mspaintadventures.com to homestuck.com, in anticipation of the impending demise of Flash (Adobe Flash was officially discontinued in December 31st, 2020, and The Unofficial Homestuck Collection is one of the only ways to experience Homestuck as close to its original format as possible)
    • Hiveswap Friendsims, dating sim style visual novel games, but with friendship and trolls, were released as an expansion of characters established (or to be established) in Hiveswap. A series of eighteen episodes with two character paths, each with multiple endings, plus and epilogue episode were released from April 13th, 2018 to December 14th, 2018, published by Hussie's inho.
  • December 2018
    • During the Tumblr NSFW Content Purge of December 2018, many fan users relocated either voluntarily out of protest, or out of having their blogs made unviewable due to originally having NSFW content. This somewhat broke up one of the larger collective Homestuck communities on the internet.
  • April 2019
    • 4/13/2019, Homestuck's 10th anniversary, brought The Homestuck Epilogues, written by Hussie and two co-writers. Due to the influx of new fans unused to upd8 culture, team members faced incessant queries as to when the next update would occur. The Homestuck Epilogues begin in an Archive Of Our Own-style format, written in text without images, and in a decidedly more melancholy tone than the comic proper. The reception to the Epilogues has been mixed. Many readers disliked the interpretations of several characters in the Epilogues, feeling them to be out of character.
  • August 2019
    • It was announced that a hardcover version of the Epilogues would be released through Viz.
    • It was confirmed that Hiveswap: Act 2 is still in development.
    • A sequel Hiveswap Friendsim, a new series of dating-sim style friendship games based on the characters in Homestuck proper called "Pesterquest", was announced and slated to be released for September 4th, 2019.[16]
    • 8/8/2019, Andrew Hussie makes his first Instagram post on his new e-boy account, @eboyhussie. Later the account will feature clues that lead to Toblerones that he has hidden around the world.
  • October 2019
  • November 2020
  • July 2022

Homestuck Reddit, Instagram, and Twitter are active to this day. Writers and composers such as James Roach, Aysha Farah, and V are active on Twitter. (More info on other sites please!) Major ongoing fanworks include fan comic Vast Error and the Perfectly Generic Podcast.

Memes

Fanworks

Homestuck has a large community of visual artists, writers, musicians, and voice actors, all of whom have contributed to fandom in their own ways. Fanworks have included digital art, paintings, sketches, mixed media, sculpture, electronically and conventionally produced music, plushes, stories, comics, roleplays, askblogs, stained glass, panels, and uncountable myriad esoteric arts.

Fanwork Formats

Homestuck has a large fanmusic community, due to its large soundtrack and the fact that in the past the Homestuck music team was populated by fans of the comic who had made previous fanmusic. Several of the original members of the Homestuck music team were from OCRemix, and a certain amount of wank followed the early music team as a result. However, it has long since died down, and the main remaining vestige of the OCRemix influence today is the various fanmusicians' use of the term "remix" to denote works that use only the melody of the original, without sampling (usually this is called a cover). The official coloUrs and mayhem albums are made entirely of fanmusic submissions.

Many fanvids in Homestuck fandom are animated with Homestuck fanart, and many incorporate fan produced music.

Many fanworks imitate the format of the comic, whether through storytelling devices, page formatting, art style, or writing style. [17] Many of these comics start on the forum and use audience suggestions (see MSPA Forum Adventures.)

Common Themes in Fanwork

Many fans create their own troll or human avatars for RP, known as fantrolls or trollsonas, complete with art and typing quirks. There is a generator available to make them, a wiki specifically for fantrolls, and several forum posts and tumblrs[18] about fantrolls.

Post-Sburb/post-Scratch fic explores how the characters cope with the end of the game and either going back to having normal lives or adapting to strange new universes created at the end of the game.

Dave Strider is popularly headcanoned as transgender, and both fic and art have been produced to this theme. Writers also create stories about many other characters exploring concepts of gender and identity, but Dave has been a particular focus.

Trolls are also commonly headcanoned as being hermaphrodites, and their genitals are referred to as bulges and nooks rather than penises and vaginas. A troll will also spew their genetic material into buckets for the incestuous soup of which young trolls are birthed from. See Troll Genitalia.

This article or section needs expansion.

Alternate Universe

Homestuck fandom has a lot of Alternate Universe stories. Many stories are titled with a thematic word suffixed with -stuck, examples: (Hemostuck, Adultstuck, HeartStuck, Hoofstuck ...) This extends to AU concepts - Humanstuck, Trollstuck, Horsestuck, Molluscstuck, etc.

Common AU concepts include:

  • No-Sburb AU, where the defining video game frame of Homestuck never takes place. The resultant fics take place either in a familiar mundane world, or in one of the alternate histories/alien planets proposed in the story--the main difference is that the characters continue to grow and develop in their original settings without being uprooted and transplanted as in the canon story. There are also No-Sburb variations where the aliens and humans still meet through some other means, such as an interplanetary exchange student program.
  • Humanstuck, where all of the characters are humans, often living in a fairly mundane world.
  • Bloodswap, trolls switch roles in the hierarchic society that they belong to, which is sorted by blood color, (see Hemospectrum) (for example Red Dead Virgo by adamantApoplectic and (Violetesence) by lucidSeraph.)
  • Speciesswap, where the trolls are humans and/or the humans are trolls (for example (>Connect) by biichan, inverts, renachan, and roachpatrol.)
  • Stabdads is a type of Homestuck A/U that involves the exiles of the troll session in their mobster personas, with the trolls they served as their children.

Many stories feature both the kids and the trolls, either in a completely different setting or in a canon AU, even though in canon some of them finally meet only at the end of Act 5. It is not uncommon for elaborate AUs to have an accompanying Tumblr blog for answering questions, additional worldbuilding, reblogging of fanart, and announcements.

Notable Fan Activities

Animation

  • A Lullaby for Gods by Angela Sham. The piece gained the attention of Andrew Hussie which lead to Sham being brought on as an animator at What Pumpkin and working on final animation of Homestuck in 2016.
  • Rex Duodecim Angelus is an animated short which billed itself as "an epic tribute to Malcolm Brown's musical masterpiece." It was finished after 3 years of development.
  • After Us is an animated music video for the Alternian ancestors–characters.
  • Mambostuck is an animated music video.
  • Sugoi Quest For Kokoro is a parody series with an intentionally bad art style in which an original character interacts with the Homestuck cast in a high school setting.

Comics and Fan Adventures

Analysis

  • optimisticDuelist, an essayist and analyst who creates Youtube videos explaining and exploring the themes and symbolism in Homestuck.
  • BladekindEyewear was a popular Homestuck theorist and analyst up to 2016.

Conventions and IRL Gatherings

  • SAHcon
  • Homestuck Dances such as Promstucks, Homestuck Homecomings, etc took place across the US and elsewhere mostly during 2012-2013. Some were paid events with rented space, DJ, etc. Participants arrived usually in themed, formal variants of Homestuck cosplay.

Fanfiction

Games

Video games

Tabletop

  • RPGStuck is a tabletop game based on Homestuck and DnD.
  • Tablestuck, a custom TTRPG system based on Homestuck and Sburb
  • Paradox space, formerly known as Dungeons and Dragonstuck, a fanmade location expansion of DnD 5e.

Music

  • Homestuck Gaiden, a multi-album collaboration project produced by the Homestuck Music Team.
(+ sheet music transcripts)
  • Broadwaystuck a cast of BNFs in late 2011-early 2012 that made Homestuck themed parodies of musicals, Disney, and popular music. They inspired several subsequent casted parody projects over the next decade as well as dozens-hundreds of unaffiliated individuals producing their own songs. Notable example tracks: Karkalicious, Stop Being A Sucker
  • Ke$hastuck in addition to its fanadventure was a music trend inverse of the above. Instead of Homestuck lyrics on pop songs, Ke$hastuck songs put pop lyric tracks over Homestuck official instrumentals. Notable tracks: Primamanthequins, [S: Ke$ha: Enter]
  • PhemieC's Homestuck songs are very popular for their beautiful composition and insight into characters.

Musicals

Podcasts

Radio Plays

  • Let's Read: Homestuck by Voxus: Similar to a Let's Play or Podfic, a project in which a group of voice actors read through the comic, with actors providing unique voices for every character. Begun in 2016 and still updating as of 2020.
  • Hivebent: The Radio Play: A planned full cast production of Hivebent, featuring adaptations of the comic text and original written section. Discontinued after one episode in 2011.

Notable Fan Projects

  • Eat Mesa: a cookbook of HS-inspired recipes first collected on the MSPA forum.
  • Pesterchum: There were various attempts by fans to create "Pesterchum", the chat program the kids use in the webcomic. (history, different versions etc.) The most recent version is Pesterchum 3.41. (usage?)
  • Zingled: Zingled is a website (like Omegle) which allows users to chat anonymously with another random user of the site. In early 2011, Homestuck fans discovered the website, and used it to roleplay anonymously as the characters from the comic. It is now almost entirely taken over by Homestuck RPers. Notable logs are posted as fic in themselves or used as inspiration for new work.
  • MSPARP/MXRP an active randomized, chat-style RP site that allows character filtering. Expanding into other fandoms.
  • Trollmegle/Trollplay a defunct randomized omegle style site that had to change its name for copyright reasons.
  • CherubPlay a defunct longform RP site that was not randomized and allowed users to post and browse detailed ads and prompts to find suitable partners. It has since been replaced by [cherp.chat CheRP].
  • Whatever that one was that was like Facebook for homestuck roleplay, with profiles and everything??
  • Homestuck Shipping Olympics

Cosplay

Homestuck is a popular cosplay fandom, with cosplays of the kids and trolls being especially common. Many of the characters' signature T-shirts are available at the MS Paint Adventures online store, increasing ease of creation for many of the cosplays.

Controversy over cosplay is common in the fandom, with numerous arguments taking place over body type and race in relation to cosplay, quality of cosplay, perceived cosplay elitism, the preponderance of Homestuck cosplay at anime conventions, and the huge number of non-canon cosplays among fans. Troll cosplayers were also notorious for their varying success at "going grey."

Before horns were available for purchase at various official and unofficial websites online, it was a rite of passage for a Homestuck cosplayer to make their own horns. Robert makes just about every pair of Terezi, Sollux and Dirk shades that cosplayers wear and has said that "homestuck keeps the lights on" in reference to the business the fandom provides him.

Communities & Resources

Wank and Conflicts

Like all large fandoms, Homestuck has its share of controversy.

  • Suggestion Boxes: Probably the first issue in Homestuck fandom was the closure of the suggestion boxes. Though Hussie had hinted many times that he was phasing out direct audience contribution, the suggestion boxes only closed for good in March of 2010[19]. The removal was contentious.
  • Music Team:In April of 2010, Bill Bolin made a post to the MSPA Forum announcing that he was quitting the music team, giving a several-page-long explanation of his reasons, and culminating in a picture of himself flipping off the camera. Even with the explanation, Bolin's reasons were almost totally opaque without access to the discussions that had preceded his departure in the private music team forum. The confusion over Bolin's exit caused a number of forumgoers to create new threads asking for any clear explanation, which were quickly spammed by those who thought the whole thing was hilarious. Bolin's middle finger enjoyed a brief spate of popularity as a meme before the mods made it clear that stirring up wank over his exit would not be considered acceptable. When his songs were removed from the flash pages in which they were featured at his request, further conflict arose. Fans complained about the replacement songs so often that in November of 2010 the explanation was the second question in the Simple Questions, Simple Answers thread FAQ.[20]

From 15.1.2010 until 2.9.2010 Hussie posted "The Intermission", a chapter that was, at that time, not directly connected with the rest of the storyline. It included many new characters and time travel shenanigans, making it difficult to follow. Many fans who started to read Homestuck later admit (or, in many cases, don't admit) to skipping the Intermission, which is completely accepted in some parts of the fandom (most places on LJ), but led to mockery and dismissal in other parts.

When "Hivebent", act 5, became very popular, several new readers started reading directly at the beginning of act 5. When the focus shifted back to the kids there were heated arguments about which group, the kids or the trolls, were more interesting.[citation needed]

Andrew Hussie is clearly aware of his fans, but it is unclear to which extent and whether he is influenced by them. Especially after surprising updates, some fans regularly accuse him of "trolling" the fans fanon. In May 2011, Hussie made a post on Formspring asking his fans not to sell fanart or any other fan march without his explicit permission.[21] See Andrew Hussie for more.

Points of discussion and conflict have included:

  • Tension between Hussie and the fandom
  • Treatment of characters with disabilities in canon and fandom, esp. Vriska toward Tavros
  • Vriscourse
  • fantrolls?
  • Dave (and others) as transgender in fanon
  • Mockery of bad art, cosplay, fic, etc.
  • June Egbert
  • Ubiquity of the fandom
Race
Shipping
Controversial fans

This article or section needs expansion.

2016 MSPA Forums outage

In late March 2016, the MSPA Forums went down with no notice to the community (including the moderators). It is still down. See here for what people know so far.

It was later confirmed the data was unrecoverable.

Further reading

References

  1. ^ MSPA Wiki (Accessed August 8, 2016)
  2. ^ Complete Bullshit on MSPA Wiki (Accessed December 30, 2019)
  3. ^ Google Trends, Homestuck. (Accessed 11/15/2021)
  4. ^ Stuck on Homestuck: How Andrew Hussie Turned a Tumblr Craze Into a Teenage Empire archive-date=October 5, 2012
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ 14 March 2016 reply from cancerously to the wildest shit that happened in homestuck’s fanbase
  7. ^ [2]
  8. ^ [citation needed]
  9. ^ [citation needed!]
  10. ^ "Created on 2010-07-06 18:41:06". homesmut - Community Profile. (Accessed March 26, 2011)
  11. ^ The current meme had 4496 comments as of March 26th and was posted on March 8th.
  12. ^ [citation needed]
  13. ^ [3] on Wordpress by Homestuck fan theravengirl, 2013-05-15, accessed 2022-08-01
  14. ^ example: 22.10.2011, Reaction Videos Obviously Deserve Their Own Thread. after [S] Cascade, on the forum
  15. ^ Hiveswap Review on Polygon, by Victoria Rose, 2017-09-14, accessed 2017-09-14
  16. ^ What Pumpkin announces Pesterquest - "New planet, new friends: Pesterquest begins Sept. 4th", 2019-08-25, accessed 2019-08-27
  17. ^ For example Nepetaquest (link) by aceofspudz and Be the Sea Dweller Lowblood (link) by ckret2.
  18. ^ Examples: Fantroll Evaluations, F-yeah Fantrollreviews, fuck yeah awesome fantrolls, and fuck yeah awful fantrolls
  19. ^ Suggestion Boxes are locked until further notice. (Accessed March 26, 2011) (Archived Nov 4, 2015)
  20. ^ Q: What happened to the music on <page>? A:Music by artist Bill Bolin was replaced after he caused serious drama/problems with the music team. It was decided all his ties to the project should be cut and thus was the music removed for sale and replaced in the flashes. It will NOT be coming back ever. It's inarguable. You can find links for the old flashes with creative Search powers, but PLEASE do not start on how the animations "don't fit" the new music. Concede your hindsight bias and have faith in Andrew and the music team. HEY! HAVE A QUESTION? Simple MSPA Questions, Simple Answers Thread!. (Accessed March 28, 2011)
  21. ^ 28.5.2011, ANNOUNCEMENT: REGARDING THE SELLING OF MSPA STUFF by Lexxy, post explaining the new rules with quotes from Andrew, accessed 3.11.2011.
  22. ^ archived (original post on Hussie's formspring no longer exists)
  23. ^ a b c DrewLinky/Hussie emails
  24. ^ [4]
  25. ^ Tweets about Gio: [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]