Trekkie (glossary term)
|Synonyms:||trekker, STrekfan, strekfan, stfan|
|See also:||Fandom Nickname|
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Tradition holds that Trekkie is a term used by outsiders to describe Star Trek fans and that the competing term Trekker was used by Star Trek fans to describe themselves. Some of the nuances have been lost by now.
In May 1970, Carol Pruitt is perhaps the earliest in print to make a distinction between "trekkie" and "trekker." The editor writes:
The [ Deck 6 ] gang is a definite help, though – they keep my spirits up, and beat me down when I start acting like a bubble-headed trekkie (rather than a sober, dignified – albeit enthusiastic – trekker). 
This distinction between the two worlds, however, may never have been universally true: for example, see Trekkie Talk, published in Australia in the 1970s. At times, "trekkie" was considered offensive, but the explanation for the difference between the terms has been in wide circulation long past the point where anyone actually cared; because the distinction was recorded in a variety of sources, including academic publications and statements by industry people connected to the franchise, new generations of fans could read all about it, but the original context was lost.
The Earliest Use
The earliest known use in a print fanwork was in the June 1968 essay A Mid-Spring's Night's Dream, or, Journey to Backstage printed in Plak-Tow #8. In it, Ruth Berman describes meeting Mark Lenard:
(I don't know about other people, but I'm afraid I was acting out of snobbery in cataloguing the roles I'd soon Mr. Lenard play when I sent him a fan letter — I'd wanted to make it clear I wasn't just a trekkie in love with Spock and therefore with all things Vulcan, especially Spock's father, but rather a sophisticated, mature admirer of good acting wherever it appears. Which I hope is true — but I'm in love with Sarek anyway.)
Another fan in the same 1968 essay, Dorothy Jones, wrote:
His great, warm brown eyes are guaranteed to melt any trekkie into a helpless pool of protoplasm.
David Gerrold wrote about the first time he'd heard the term:
The first time I heard the word Trekkie, it was back in 1968 or '69. There were a bunch of hard-core science-fiction Fans—these were True Fans, allowed to use the sacred H in words like fhan and ghod and bheer—and they were upset about all those Trekkies who were cluttering up the hallways of the conventions, acting like idiots and not taking science fiction seriously enough. 
In 1969, Gerrold wrote (and used a prototype):
... there are too many fans who have not realized that Star Trek is a broken promise, a vision of things that will never be. These are the rabid little trekkees who get excited at seeing a real tribble (damn it, it's only a powder puff!). 
In late 1970, Jacqueline Lichtenberg wrote:
Hasn't the ST hysteria pretty well collapsed and faded away by now?" Well, in a way, it has. We are no longer, a group of wide-eyed, Spockshocked Trekkies. We have meta-morphosed [sic] into a serious, dedicated group of fans analogous to the Tolkien Society or the Baker Street Irregulars but with our own singular hallmarks.
In 1971, a zine ed wrote:
The puzzled creature on page 24 is a "trekkie." (I don't care what that girl says, cute young female ST fen are trekkies and no insult is intended.) 
Definitions from "The STrekfan's Glossary of Abbreviations and Slanguage"
Trekkie: "Although the mundane world makes no distinction between Trekkie and any other term for the ST fan, Trekkie is considered odd, unfitting and even derogatory to some serious ST fans."
Trekker: "This term is more accepted within fandom and carry the connotation of the serious, mature student of the show and of fandom."
Most of the wide-eyed Trekkies had not been connected with sf fandom and didn't know how to maintain contact with other fans. Nor did these Trekkies believe that Strekdom could survive the cancellation of the show. But it has. And a remarkable metamorphosis is taking place. The outer layer of Trekkies is sloughing off and the central core of Strekfen is being freed to arise anew from the ashes. 
What's in a Name?
Recently a new term has come into use for identifying "Star Trek" fans. This term, "Trekkie," somehow doesn't seem to fit with the image of most of the "Star Trek" fans I know. It connotes a group of screaming teenyboppers who latch on to a fad, beat it death, and abandon it to move on to the next fad. I, for one, don't happen to like having this label attached to me. "Star Trek" is not a ephemeral for me or for the other "Star Trek" fans that I know. True, "Star Trek" fans stick to their show, even through all the frustration of cancellation by N.B.C. and abuse by local stations.
The use of this term (and I don't plan to use it again) worries me. If the image it projects impresses me (as well as other people I know) in this way, I wonder what it indicates to N.B.C. and Paramount. Thinking of the "Star Trek" campaign as a passing fad, the executives at Paramount and N.B.C. may be sitting tight waiting for it all to die down. All that was gained by writing logical, intelligent letters is lost by the use of this image. Certainly there are people moving in S.T. circles who have latched onto it as a fad. But the true fan can't let these people seem to be representative of our group as a whole. It is imperative to keep the quality of our image high.It is my personal opinion that we (S.T. FANS) should refrain from the the use of this term. Although it is completely impossible to stop its use altogether, we can cut its use among ourselves and hopefully correct others (and stop its use in printed articles.) 
... the best part of the Con... Trekkies! There were no strangers; we all had a common bond and we were really together. You met someone in an elevator and if they had a Star Trek badge on, you knew you had something to talk about. And talk we did! ... Only one did I hear an "Ohhh! Leonard Nimoy is sooo cute!" I ended that nonsense with a gentle, but firm, "There are many ways to describe Leonard Nimoy, but 'cute' is definitely not one of them." The Trekkiebopper agreed and immediately grew into a Trekkie. The "cute" Trekkieboppers soon found they had two alternatives: grow up, or find something else to be a fan of. Most of them grew up, I am pleased to say. 
Like all Star Trek cons, this one had its share of Trekkies. To some people Trekkie refers to any Star Trek fan, but most ST fans find the word demeaning. I myself apply the term to female ST fans who squeal at the thought of just seeing one of the Star Trek cast in person. There were defiantly some of those at Houston. Trekkies are usually less mature than most ST fans and tend to make a nuisance of themselves. 
The first time I was called a Trekkie, my reaction was annoyance with those who had given Star Trek fans a bad name. But, on second thought, I found myself even more annoyed by the extravagance of the name-callers.
A Trekker, it was once stated, is a person with a pen in one hand, a typewriter on the other, one eye glued to the television, the other eye on a pinup of Spock, and both feet off the ground. 
In the future PLEASE refer to us as 'trekkers,' OK? Trekkies denotes some kind of 'groupie' type hanger-on, and we who are serious STAR TREK fans resent such an image.
The appellation 'Trekkie' never bothered me, until someone started screaming it ain't dignified. Yawn. It's okay, I guess, altho' personally prefer Trekfan. Of course, 'Starswarmies' wouldn't be bad, either, if the general population associated them with intelligent, concerned, orderly beings. The trouble with 'Trekkie' is that it conveys a teeny-bopper image -- not the word itself, but the image of 'fans gathering at conventions to get a glimpse of Mr. Spock,' as some TV newspaper columnists have written... 
Trekkie' comes from the 'Trekkiebopper' as an analogy of the then current term, 'Teeniebopper' (See the TV Guide of the same period). 'Trekfan' is mostly a midwest term, coined by the locals on the examples of genfan [general science fiction fan], comicfan and serconfan etc. The plural is trekfen. Other terms are Trekfan, Strekfan, strekfan, STfan... Captial usage is variable, but generally, trek fan and trekker are uncapitalized. Trekker is an East Coast term, I am unsure of the derivation.
What many people outside of STAR TREK fandom don't seem to realize is that there are two rather distinctly different types of Star Trek fans: Trekkers and Trekkies. And Star Trek fandom tends to suffer because of this misunderstanding. There are two different outlooks that separate the Trekker and the Trekkie: The Trekker is the serious, dedicated, and hardworking fan who is seriously into ST fandom trying to get something constructive done while still meeting people and making friends. But Trekkies- are. inconsiderate, disruptive kids who are simply along for the ride. The Trekker sees Star Trek as the only recent television show that treated science fiction in an adult, painstakingly authentic, highly entertaining manner by craftsmen who (because of their dedication and skill) make the future come alive. Trekkers give freely of their time, energy, and resources to get things done. They tend to be the organizers, the volunteers, the hard and consistent workers, the editors and officers. They run the service organizations like the Star Trek Welcommittee. Prime examples of Trekkers: John and Bjo Trimble, David Gerrold, Allyson Whitfield. Trekkies on the other hand, see Star Trek as just another exciting TV show. And the fandom associated with it simply another "in-group" they can try to join. They can always be seen, running all over, zapping everyone with their toy phasers, dressed in their spockears and uniforms. They are consumers of anything that says Star Trek or has a picture of Spock on it. Their only aim is to have fun. Trekkies are. forever quoting their favorite character, but are very apathetic when it comes to working on club activities and volunteer projects. Trekkers are responsible for most of the good things that have been done in Star Trek fandom. Trekkies, unfortunately, are responsible for the bad impression the general public has of Star Trek fans.
The argument is all about the nicknames for Star Trek fans, besides "Trekfan", "Freak", and "Them Nuts". "Trekkie" and "Trekker". Now in print it is generally "Trekkie". (From Gerrold, no less.) I do not know if this is only in the Northwest, but also used is the term "Trekker". Fine, Nifty. "A rose by any other name would smell as sweet." But, there are those who go into cardiac arrest at being deferred to as "Trekkies", preferring "Trekker" as they feel "Trekkie" is too close to the despised term "Groupie", and they consider themselves seriously. "Trekkie" does sound rather like a little girl clutching a Spock doll, but that's no reason to have a heart attack. Trekker, on the other hand, also sounds a trifle stupid. The 430-odd people of the USS Enterprise are trekkers, they are going somewhere. The rest of us who sit on our bums and watch them are trekkies, recipients of their trekdom. 
Many, many times I have been insulted by being called a "Trekkie". How can that be an insult you inquire? Simple. In implying that I am a "Star Trek" follower they must realize that in being a "Star Trek" follower I have dignity. Therefore, I do not wish to be lowered, nor do I wish the name of "Star Trek" to be disgraced.
Allow me to explain. When you use the word "Trekkie" you make someone sound like a freak-type groupie. On the other hand, when you say "Trekker" you allow the person a little dignity and pride. "Trekkie" sounds childish. "Trekker" is bold and worthy. Like "soldier". "Trekker" is dependable. In using the word "Trekkie" you are degrading the name "Star Trek" itself. It sounds like "Treky". Is that what we want to be called...? A "Treky"?So please, we have a certain image to uphold; therefore, in the name of Trekkers everywhere, correct friends, relatives, and newspapers when they carry out thoughtless acts. 
The Trekkie is still pretty much as original myths portray him; he is someone who thinks Star Trek is "cool". He still buys any junk that is marked "Star Trek", swarms to any con where he might get a chance to breathe the same air as the STARS (!!!), and generally makes a nuisance of himself. He neither knows nor cares about the finer points of Star Trek philosophy. He is just interested in having a good time with the "fashionable" crowd at the time. Fortunately, to the Trekkie, fandom will only be a passing fancy and eventually, when the fad moves on to other things, the Trekkie will drift along with the crowd. That takes care of about 80% of "Trek" fandom... 
As a concerned Star Trek fan, I hate to see the media, the public, and worst of all other uninformed Star Trek fans use the term "Trekkies". Many times this term is used, it tends to classify us in the category of "Groupies", and to carry it a little farther, "Hippies/Yippies".
Spreading all over the globe is an invisible revolution trying desperately to inform the people that we 'prefer' to be called "Trekkers". This title not only lends a more tasteful view of the Star Trek fans, but with everyone's help, we can show others that we are people who believe in the ideas and philosophy of Star Trek.We are not little children or weirdos, but rather concerned, intelligent, friendly human beings. As a member of Central Florida Star Trek, I urge you to spread the word. As to those who resist, I can easily get my hands on Kor's mind-sifter. 
The deplorable term "trekkie" was coined by the media to represent all of Star Trek fandom. In turn, fandom has applied the term to the horrid little monsters who best fit the popular image of Star Trek or general science fiction fans, who are, in truth, the lowest form of fannish life.
The term "Trekkie" is often used to make fun of Star Trek fans, attempting to picture them as juvenile science fiction groupies. The term "Trekker" is somewhat better, but still bears too much resemblance to "Trekkie" to be acceptable. Thus, the term "Trekkerian" has arisen to indicate those individuals seriously into Star Trek, not only on the level of a quality science-fiction program, but as an approach to life, a philosophy that all individuals can benefit from studying. The principles of IDIC, of the Prime Directive, the message of hope and love seen throughout the series can, if applied to our own lives, enrich them enormously. 
A couple of years later, I came under attack in the pages of an east coast fanzine. The reason was unimportant, it was just my turn in the bucket; but one of the crimes I was accused of committing was of "pandering to the massed Trekkies at Torcon II." [...] Trekkies?!! I hadn't seen any Trekkies. I had seen two thousand science-fiction fans, ninety percent of the attendance of the 1973 World Science Fiction Convention. What made them Trekkies all of a sudden? That they were willing to sit an hour and a half in a very hot room waiting to see an animated cartoon? They could just as easily been defined as a bunch of science-fiction fans who just like Star Trek a lot. [...] But—one of the things that bothered me the most about that incident was that the author of the article had used the word Trekkie as an epithet—as if it were something to be ashamed of.
It wasn't too long after that, that I first heard the phrase, "We're not Trekkies, We're Trekkers." I heard it from a twenty-three year old man who was wearing a blue velour shirt with a Starfleet insignia over the heart, pointed ears and arched eyebrows. He was carrying a lucite ray gun and wearing flared trousers and boots. He didn't have to explain what he meant—he didn't want to be confused with all those people that everybody was saying such terrible things about. He wanted it understood that he was a serious fan of Star Trek.I heard that statement quite a few more times—it's even shown up in the letters column of this magazine. And every time I hear it, it distresses me—because it is one more Star Trek fan falling into the prejudice trap: he's accepting the validity of the epithet—that to be a Trekkie is shameful—and he is thereby accepting someone else's definition of that particular kind of identity. When he then says, "Oh, no—we're not Trekkies, we're Trekkers," he is agreeing by implication that yes, "All those terrible Trekkies really are ruining the neighborhood." The fan who said it didn't realize what he was saying, but he was admitting that he was ashamed to be a Star Trek fan. It doesn't really make much difference one way or the other if a fan calls himself a Trekkie or a Trekker or anything else—but the kind of part-time bigots who complain about "all those terrible Trekkies" can't tell the difference and don't care if there is one. This young Trekker who was very concerned that I understand the difference did not understand that it makes no difference at all to the people who laid that head-trip on him in the first place. 
"Trekkies" are the second largest group, estimated two and a half million in number. They are actively involved in reading fan published literature, reading the professional novels, attending conventions for Star Trek, and other various activities.
They can see no faults with Star Trek and anyone connected with it. Often they have an attachment to only one or two characters or stars, and they are usually introverted and shy individuals.
For them, F.I.A.W.O.L., an acronym for "Fandom Is A Way Of Life," So much so that this has yielded the "Lt. Mary Sue" stories which have gained some notoriety in fandom and in which the writer projects his/herself into the Star Trek universe.
Interestingly enough, Trekkies usually refer to themselves as "Trekkers," and to the prepubescent fans as the "Trekkies" who "give fandom a bad name." Trekkies also see no difference between themselves and Trekkers, hence their current usage of the term "Trekkers" for themselves.
"Trekkers," on the other hand, chose the term because it is "more dignified and less juvenile" than "Trekkie." Most of them see their relationship as F.I.J.A.G.D.H., or "Fandom Is Just A God Damn Hobby." However, they are the primary producers of fan fiction, whereas the Trekkies are the primary consumers. Trekkers also like to refer to themselves as "Tru-fen (True Fans)," and even "Star Trek Fans" (because so many Trekkies are calling themselves Trekkers).Trekkers can find a number of faults with the series and those connect with it. But there are only half a million or so who see themselves, or at least can be correctly labeled as Trekkers. 
...the difference between a Trekker and a Trekkie stuck in my mind because on an episode of Jeopardy, there was a contestant from Myrtle Beach SC with the unusual name of Doak, who explained the difference quite succinctly, he said a Trekkie "puts on ears and jumps around at the cons," while a Trekker "prefers to watch and appreciate the nuances of the show." 
Are we Trekkies or Trekkers? In my opinion, it's not what you answer to, but how the studio views you that counts in the long run. I don't mind being called a Trekkie... The mundane-on-the-street who views us as weirdoes doesn't seem to care what we call ourselves: it's all one to him or her. And Paramount seems not to care, either. The past few years, the Star Trek people, who used to value every fan (back when they were struggling and needed every fan), now seem to treat Trekkies and Trekkers with equal contempt, and as many of us, including some of the better pro writers, have recently discovered. Will we gain respect of Paramount and the general public through use of a generic word to describe ourselves? We haven't heard yet, have we? As for me, I've been considered a weirdo for over 40 years, so I don't suppose that can be changed. But I feel no qualms about calling myself a Trekkie and proving that Im not a foot or a sucker... It's occurred to me that if we do want the studio's respect... perhaps we shouldn't call ourselves by either name; nor should we call ourselves fans... We should start calling ourselves 'patrons' and 'customers' because that's what we are. Ultimately, as a group, we pay these peoples' wages -- a fact that I think they'd prefer to forget.
So who invented the word Trekkie'? Surely not a fan. I can quite easily imagine a group of hunters prowling around video stores and book shops, calling out "Here Trekkie Trekkie", blowing into a communicator whistle. I once read somewhere that "we" prefer to be called 'Trekkers'. Despite being infinitely more dignified, it still sounds daft - a hike, anyone? So next time you go to say "I'm a Trekker" or "I'm a Trekkie", instead say "I'm a Star Trek fan and I'm proud of it" and see what the response is.My mind takes me back to the Saturday Night Live sketch set at a Trek convention. All of the people there were the stereotypical fan, as described in my first paragraph. Although sometimes we need to laugh at ourselves (some of that sketch was genuinely funny; some sadly true) it was quite unnecessary for William Shatner to appear and make the comments he did. "Get a life", he said. As fans it's us who gave him a life - a damn good one at that. Surely we deserve some respect from him? At least most of the other stars take the time to talk to their fans at conventions - strange we may be, but we pay their bills and they know it. 
I was told for years that the Trekkies were the people who just watched the show and were fans and had a good time with it, and the Trekkers were the "get a life, move out of your mother's house and get a girlfriend" people. These are the ones who not only can exzplain how warp engines work, but they petitio9n the government to use them. Then I came to college this fall and got a lot of people pissed because I called them trekkies. I guess the definations were reversed whereever they come from. 
I've always viewed 'Trekkers' as the people who are way too serious about what they're called (and about the show), and 'Trekkies' as people like myself, who have a good sense of humor about it and don't much care what they're called (within reason :). 
"Trekkie" was the original term used for Star Trek fans, but be cause it was also frequently used as an insult, someone somewhere came up wi th "Trekker". Many people think Trekkie is insulting and many others think that Trekker is snobbish and arrogant. There is ABSOLUTLY NO Distinction bet ween the two, which has cuased me to revert to calling people "Star Trek fans." 
NBC broadcast Star Trek from 1966-1969. At the height of Star Trek's popularity, the media called the show’s young, enthusiastic fans Trekkies. Because of the mass letter-writing campaign taken on to save the series from cancellation, fans started banding together and forming clubs. These original fans took offense at the "Trekkie" label and decided on the "universally-accepted" term Trekker.
But I’ve come to find out that Trekker is not so universally-accepted as I thought. Let’s face it, some fans are more active in fandom than others. The more dedicated fans run conventions, publishmediazines, write stories, and create fantastic artwork. Many of these Star Trek fans prefer the term Trekfan (singular) or Trekfen (plural). But not all.Angela Reese, a fan I "met" through the Internet, insists that the terms Trekker and Trekfan are too dull to describe her and other Star Trek fans she knows. She likes the term Trekkie because it implies that she has been an avid, active fan from the very beginning: from the fandom’s inception in the '60s, to Star Trek: The Next Generation of the '80s, all the way to Star Trek: Deep Space Nine of the '90s. 
... "I wanted to ask if it was intentional that the book is called 'Trekkers' and all references in the book are to 'Trekkers,' but in the acknowledgments you state that Jeanne Cavelos was and is a 'Trekkie'! Are those your words or hers? OK, OK, that is pretty nitpicking."
- First, Jeanne [editor of The Nitpicker's Guide for Next Generation Trekkers] calls herself a "Trekkie. " I used to have this great theory about the difference between "Trekker" and 'Trekkie. " After meeting more fans, I've given it up! Originally, everyone was a "Trekkie. " It was the end of the 60s, the beginning of the 70s, there were "Hippies" and so there were "Trekkies." Then came NextGen and Somebody in the Powers That Be decided "Trekkies" wasn't sophisticated enough so they started the term 'Trekkers. "Of course, all the people who had happily called themselves "Trekkies" for years didn't take too kindly to having their name changed. Hence the current confusion. We used 'Trekker" in the book because it seemed more appropriate. (Yes, we actually discussed it!)
Are we STILL talking about this?
Let me start off with a joke that someone else posted....
What's the difference between a trekker and a trekkie.... Trekkers wonder what sex is like in zero g and trekkies wonder what sex is....
I am an original fan of Star Trek. I started out as a trekkie. We were all called that at the beginning. Then, there were those of us who moved beyond being groupies and became trekkers. I think, but am not certain, that the phrase was actually put into usage by Bjo Trimble. She is definitely an original ST fan.
I and many others have been calling ourselves trekkers for over 20 years. Trekkies are groupies. Those people who get married in line in costume and who indeed make it a point to be dressed in costume. They are the ones who seek out the camera showing the rest of the world that ST fans are a bunch of groupies. Trekkers duck the camera. Geez, how many ascension ceremonies do I hear of being preformed at cons?Trekkers have outgrown the need to be groupies. We are professionals but admit that part of the impetious to becoming a professional was began with Star Trek. I am a writer. I started out writing ST fiction. In fact, examples of that work got me legitimate work. I have even done articles about the original series and ST:TNG. I too acknowledge my debt to ST. But, I guarantee you that I don't have a costume in my closet. 
: I believe that "Trekkers" refers to ST fans, whereas "Trekkies" refers
to the hopeless and blind ST fanatics.You don't hear too much about "Trekkies" anymore -- probably b/c there doesn't seem to be too much to be fanatic about anymore. Though I personally think DS9 is Great! 
Trekkie is such a negative, inflaming word to my generation of fans; I see fire every time it’s used in relation to my work. Despite the fact that I break it down systematically, multiple times, in my writing, still, about the half the time writers who write about Textual Poachers use the word ‘Trekkie’, and the rest of them describe the book as being about Trek fans despite the fact that it’s about all sorts of media fans.
- Trekkie... Trekkie... What is Trekkie? (1977)
- The Name and The Destiny by Sheldon Ranz (1978)
- Pride & Prejudice, an essay by David Gerrold in Starlog #43 (1981)
- Star Trek: The Fandom by Randall Landers (1981)
- A Fan by Any Other Name : Fannish Slang and Nomenclature, Archived version by Karen Ann Yost (1994)
- "Trekker's Credo" by Judith Gran: Trekker's Credo: satire, Archived version (1999)
- Memory Alpha entry for Trekkie
- Wikipedia on Trekker vs. Trekkie
- Roddenberry.com on Trekkie vs. Trekker
- ^ from Deck 6 #7
- ^ Pride & Prejudice, David Gerrold, from Starlog #43, February 1981, page 22-23
- ^ from The Awful Offal
- ^ from Open Letter from Jacqueline Lichtenberg to Ted White
- ^ from Maybe #13
- ^ Open Letter from Jacqueline Lichtenberg to Ted White
- ^ by Shelley Allan, from The Babelian Council #3
- ^ from Space-Time Continuum #1
- ^ HoustonCon 71-74: Star Trek's Koenig a Big Hit, Archived version
- ^ by Ruth Berman from Some Thoughts on Trekkies
- ^ from Sub-Space Chatter #2
- ^ from Sub-Space Chatter #6
- ^ from The Halkan Council #9 (August 1975)
- ^ from The Halkan Council #9 (August 1975)
- ^ from A Piece of the Action #37 (March 1976)
- ^ from Saurian Brandy/Dandelion Wine January 1977
- ^ from Saurian Brandy/Dandelion Wine January 1977
- ^ from Trekkie... Trekkie... What is Trekkie?
- ^ from Star Trek Today #8
- ^ Derek Stevenson, St Catherines, letter to the Toronto Star, printed December 2, 1979
- ^ from the editorial of Universal Understanding #1
- ^ Pride & Prejudice, David Gerrold, from Starlog #43, February 1981, page 22-23
- ^ from Star Trek: The Fandom by Randall Landers
- ^ from a letter of comment in Beauty and The Beast: The Newsletter #7 (September 1989)
- ^ from Comlink #48 (1991)
- ^ Martin Eade in Constellation #144
- ^ Lysator, Cassie N., dated January, 1994.
- ^ Lysator, Angela R, dated January, 1994.
- ^ Lysator, DARVOS, dated January, 1994.
- ^ A Fan by Any Other Name : Fannish Slang and Nomenclature, Archived version by Karen Ann Yost (1994)
- ^ from The Nitpicker's Guild Newsletter #2 (July 1994)
- ^ What Do We Call Ourselves?, comment by Mark, November 9, 1997
- ^ What Do We Call Ourselves?, comment by Phillip, October 23, 1997
- ^ Henry Jenkins. Intensities interview at Console-ing Passions, University of Bristol, July 7, 2001. pdf