Mary Sue

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Synonyms: Gary Stu, Marty Stu, Lt. Mary Sue, Lieutenant Mary Sue
See also: Canon Sue, Suethor, self-insertion
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Contents

A Mary Sue is an original character in fan fiction, usually but not always female, who for one reason or another is deemed undesirable by fan critics. A character may be judged Mary Sue if she is competent in too many areas, is physically attractive, and/or is viewed as admirable by other sympathetic characters. Mary Sues are generally presumed to be idealized self-inserts rather than true characters, although they may actually be intended as proxies for the reader. In fan fiction, it is considered extremely gauche, or at least very immature, for an author to create characters based on him- or herself.

"Mary Sue" is an extremely subjective value judgement. One fan's Mary Sue may be another fan's awesome woman action hero. Someone at TvTropes observed that "Mary Sue" is actually the reaction that fans may have to a work that "is unduly favoring a character by changing other characters or the environment in inappropriate ways. When the audience calls "Mary Sue" on a character, the author has shattered their Willing Suspension of Disbelief."[1]

Mary Sue type characters do exist in both fan fiction and canon. The main difficulty with true Mary Sue stories is that they often cause canon characters, established story lines, and the very inner consistency of the canon's reality, to behave wildly out of bounds.

The male version of a Mary Sue is a Gary Stu or a Marty Stu.

History

Original Work: "A Trekkie's Tale"

"I never intended to put down all stories about aspiring females." - Paula Smith

The term was coined in 1973 by Paula Smith who in the zine, Menagerie, parodied the archetype in a Star Trek story called "A Trekkie's Tale"[2][3]

art for the original story by Paula Smith: "A Trekkie's Tale"

Smith described the origins of A Trekkie's Tale in an interview:

Then came along this one story. I don't even remember the title of the zine, but I remember vividly that its cover was illustrated with hand-colored yellow ducks. [4] Well, that didn't seem to have a whole lot to do with Star Trek, but I guess it meant something to the author. This particular one not only had the young teenaged girl who was a lieutenant come on the bridge, where Kirk and Spock immediately fell in love with her -- I think Scotty and McCoy did as well -- but they all backed off and were very respectful because she only had eyes for Chekov. So during the adventure, everybody beams down to the planet and everybody gets captured by the aliens, and this character manages to spring them because—literally—she has a hairpin. When they get back to the ship, she's sick. She had caught something down there and she dies. And then she resurrected herself… [5]
"Sweet Mary Sue", filk lyrics by Susan Landerman; art by Elaine Gregory; from Grip #26 (1987).

Smith saw this as an example of a pattern she had observed:

I'm very much a pattern seeker, and you could see that every Trek zine at the time[6] had a main story about this adolescent girl who is the youngest yeoman or lieutenant or captain ever in Starfleet. She makes her way onto the Enterprise and the entire crew falls in love with her. They then have adventures, but the remarkable thing was that all the adventures circled around this character. Everybody else in the universe bowed down in front of her. Also, she usually had some unique physical identifier—odd-colored eyes or hair—or else she was half-Vulcan. The stories read like they were written about half an hour before the zine was printed; they were generally not very good. [5]

Ms. Smith's story stirred up considerable sentiment pro and con. Subsequent to the story's appearance, Ms. Smith and her partner Sharon Ferraro wrote LoCs to various fan publications to point out that this or that story "contained a Mary Sue". When the authors and other readers objected, Smith and Ferraro began to explain in detail what they saw as Mary Sue and why it was detrimental to fiction. Her overt purpose was to help amateur writers improve enough to be taken seriously by professional science fiction magazine editors. She went into some detail about this in issue 3 of Halkan Council.

However, at the very beginning Trek fan fiction did not include any such characters or stories. How did the concept begin, and did it really dominate fanfiction and fan publications in the 1970s? [7]

A New Kind of Fan

"... I was unaware of the ever-increasing number of Star Trek fans who had no experience with science fiction, and no interest in science fiction whatsoever." - Joan Marie Verba from Boldly Writing

Much of the very earliest fan fiction did not involve sexual relationships or romantic involvement. Fans of that era had never even heard the word "pairing". When characters did become romantically involved, it was always heterosexual, as in the Star Trek television series.

Along with canon female characters (Elaan, Chapel, etc.), authors routinely created original female characters. These characters were taken for granted in early TOS fandom. Since there was hope the original show would return within a few years, many fans wrote stories that could presumably be adapted into viable Star Trek episodes. Original female characters with unusual gifts or attributes were taken for granted as were the female guest stars on the show, nor were all such characters deemed self-insertions of their respective authors.

In her history of Trek fan fiction, Boldly Writing, Joan Verba attributes both slash stories and the modern type of Mary Sue to the fact that by the mid-1970s numerous amateur authors with little or no background in science fiction were becoming attracted to the series. They saw Star Trek primarily as a "buddy" show about three guys exploring the galaxy together. These, not the very earliest fan writers, were the ones whose writing focused on emotions and relationships between the characters rather than on plot.

Even after the appearance of "A Trekkie's Tale", some fans[8] merely noted in passing the appearance of "adolescent wish-fantasies" or "alter ego" in stories, with the attitude that amateur writers create such stories for practice. However, since fan writers began publishing on the Internet, the focus on Mary Sue and the perceived need to avoid writing such characters has increased exponentially.[9]

Changes in Mary Sues over time

"To make the transition from child to woman, the active agent within her had to die." - Camille Bacon-Smith, from Enterprising Women

Mary Sue (and Harlan Ellison) from Menagerie #10, art by Martynn, click to read

Initially, a Mary Sue was a teenaged, brilliant, good-looking girl, who is also modest, self-effacing, self-sacrificing and gets the guy as her reward. In other words, the smart young girl gives up her independence and intelligence to fulfill the traditional subservient role of women in society. In stories where she did not end up with one of the canon male characters, she invariably died.

Bacon-Smith says:

"For intelligent women struggling with their culturally anomalous identities, Mary Sue combines the characteristics of active agent with the culturally approved traits of beauty, self-sacrifice, and self-effacement, which magic recipe wins her the love of the hero... [the] Mary Sue story is [the writer's] attempt, if only in print, to experience that rite of passage from the active child to the passive woman who sacrifices her selfhood to win the prince... Mary Sue writers traditionally kill the active self with their alter-ego character at the end of their stories."

Paula Smith says Mary Sue embodies "the teenage girl suddenly finding ... the power of her sexual attraction... It's a stage of development in young girls."[5]

Modern Mary Sues show more variety -- maybe because possible fictional hero roles for women have expanded. However, many fan critics may have a Mary Sue reaction today based on elements that wouldn't have caused this reaction in past decades:

  • Unusual hair or eye color, general attractiveness
  • Exceptional abilities, even in a "verse" such as Star Trek where exceptional people are the norm
  • An exotic pet
  • Being a confidante of one or more main characters
  • A detailed description of the character

Some fan critics call Mary Sue on any original female character, or any original character.

Definitions

The definition of Mary Sue has changed over time, which seems only right, as our definition of a "real woman" has changed drastically in the last thirty years. Interestingly, the concept of "Mary Sue" has trickled down from media fandom into general SF fandom and even the mainstream[10], a rare example of fannish drift flowing the other way.

Common fannish definitions

  • Idealized self-insert: In the strictest sense, Mary Sue is an Original Female Character (OFC) in fan fiction. She is perfect in every sense of the word, and is usually considered to be a self-insertion of the author. Some fans have observed that she's just as likely to be intended as someone for the reader to identify with. She may also have been created as a "perfect mate" for one of the canon characters. She is unique in numerous ways (by having an unusual hair color, eye color, special abilities, etc) and the author may devote a lot of space to descriptions of the character. At some point in the tale she "saves everyone" in some way. Nearly everyone in the story instantly loves her; and those who don't are eventually brought around. Some Mary Sues may have emotional difficulties, and may have suffered a difficult or tragic past, inspiring sympathy from canon characters. If she has flaws, they are "perfect" flaws, such as wanting to serve others to the detriment of her own well-being. [11]
  • The Attention Hog: Original "guest star" character in fan fiction who overshadows the canonical cast. The focus of reader and character attention is unduly placed on the guest star rather than on the leads. If original characters become that interesting to the author, he or she might consider creating a gen series, in the old-fashioned sense of the word; stories which take place in a particular universe but involving none of the canonical characters. There is also a kind of fanfic in which the focus is on the original character and the canonical cast makes a "guest star" appearance in a story about this character, but this is more like a spinoff series in television and does not usually set off Mary Sue alarms in readers.
  • The Warper: Any poorly-written character appearing in almost any story and in almost any form. They are created by writers who "lack sufficient skill or a sufficient understanding of human nature". The primary defining characteristic of these stories is that the "canon characters and plot warp around her to fit the author's wish fulfillment,"[12] allowing the Mary Sue to make the decisions and take the actions normally taken by others. A canon character can be made into a Mary Sue by this definition. Warpers may also be characters who are introduced as confidants of the main protagonists. They are set into the story for the purpose of bringing the two lead characters together or reconciling them if they have quarreled. [13]

The score: Mary Sue Litmus Tests

A 19-point Mary Sue Litmus Test [14] was originally created by Melissa Wilson. Writers of original amateur stories and fan fiction can test original characters to see if they fit the profile. [15] There are other such tests, including for original amateur writing,[16], some reputed to be more useful than others.

Some writers question the usefulness of having a litmus test at all or think that more adjustments are necessary,[17] especially after some amateur authors admitted to working from the test when developing a new character simply to ensure she would not be a Mary Sue.[18]

Mary Sues in Fandom

the cover of the zine, Diamonds and Rust, features super-agent Chantal Caberfae, a well-known Mary Sue.

Fandom, and readers, dislike Mary Sues with varying degrees of passion. [19] There is a Livejournal community dedicated to making fun of stories with Mary Sues in them[20], as well as a similar community for Canon Sues[21], though some people feel this behavior is a form of character bashing and will inhibit amateur authors, particularly beginners or the very young, from writing at all.

Despite this, it is not uncommon for an author's very first pieces of writing to contain Mary Sues. An author who writes extreme Sues may be called a Suethor in some fandoms. Some more experienced authors also enjoy the wish fulfillment of writing Mary Sues.

Numerous parody stories with "Mary Sue" type characters also exist, and may be mistaken for the genuine article. My Immortal (Harry Potter story) is an example. Cupidsbow's (rated NC-17) With 6 You Get Unicorns, the sequel to the slash meta piece 8 ways not to write a fanfic (rated PG-15), offers another.

A Fan Talks About Her Mary Sue

A popular series in the mid-1970s was The Landing Party 6, and one of its characters was Sadie Faulwell, a character written by Paula Block:
The 'Faulwellian Epic's' genre was... well, I can't exactly say it was action-adventure, can I? I always considered it a Mary-Sue (how could I honestly consider it anything else, when the drawings of Sadie were patterned after me?), in that Mary-Sue incorporates portions of the author's personality within the main character. And Sadie certainly reflected a lot of my thoughts and yearnings. Though 'she got her man in the end,' I always tried to keep her as humanly imperfect as possible. She didn't win by beauty, gile or feats or heroism. It was her personality that pulled her through -- a sense of fatalism blended with a sense of humor, vulnerability balanced by stamina. A lot of people could identify with her, which helped transform the meaning of 'Mary Sue' in this case from Wonder Woman to Everywoman. [22]

Advice to Avoid Mary Sue

Along with common-sense advice such as attention to plot, theme, setting and mood, guidelines written for amateur writers by amateur writers now include a warning to "avoid Mary Sue". Young authors are sometimes warned not to create original characters who are so much as attractive[23] although most seem to stick with the definition of Mary Sue as "too perfect" or an idealized version of oneself[24].

On the subscription page on the New Landing Weyr website, prospective new members were advised , "Please, no purple-eyed red-heads! Keep your characters realistic."

These types of guidelines and warnings also appear frequently in RPGs. For example, on the website for the Dragonriders of Pern RPG, New Landing Weyr, the subscription page (archived) advised new members:

"Want to know what not to make your character? Please meet Righinn, our very own "What Not to Create Your Persona" created especially for the first pass! Thank you Melissa for creating her."

The bio for Righinn McGregor (archived) presented a deliberately overwritten, exaggeratedly virtuous, Mary Sue-type character as a mock candidate for membership in the game.

Mary Sues in Canon

Main article: Canon Sue

Sometimes fans notice when the writing staff steps over the fictional line and moves a character out of believability and into the Mary Sue realm. This is occasionally referred to as a Canon Sue.

Probably the most famous case of a Canon Sue is Wesley Crusher, from Star Trek: The Next Generation, annoying boy hero, written by Gene Wesley Roddenberry. Bacon-Smith points out that James T. Kirk himself could qualify as a Marty Stu. A female hero who seems overly competent or appears to exhibit new skills as the plot calls for them (James H. Schmitz's Telzey Amberdon, Anne McCaffrey's Menolly, comic heroine Modesty Blaise) may be viewed as a Canon Sue by readers, while male heroes with the same traits (Batman, McGyver, James Bond) may get a pass.

Controversy

"The automatic reaction you are going to get is 'that's a Mary Sue.'" - Interviewee at Clippercon 1987
F!s post1266 no197.jpg

Perhaps no term or concept in fandom has managed to stir up the amount of emotion evoked by the words "Mary Sue". Amateur editor Edith Cantor once remarked that "in terms of their impact on those whom they affect, those words [Mary Sue] have got to rank right up there with the Selective Service Act." [25] Fan writers report feeling inhibited, even frightened, by the thought of writing original characters who might be seen as Mary Sue by readers.

Is fear of "Mary Sue" stifling creativity?

Why is it that in a community that is probably 90% female, we have so few stories about believable, competent, and identifiable-with women? - Johanna Cantor, "Mary Sue, A Short Compendium", quoted in Camille Bacon-Smith's Enterprising Women'

The "Mary Sue" concept has drawn criticism from amateur and professional authors. Many such criticisms are brushed off as coming from writers who create "Mary Sues" and are thus beneath notice. However, the onus of wishing to avoid being condemned as a "Suethor" ("Mary Sue" author) apparently weighs heavily even on professional authors and sophisticated amateurs, particularly women.

Camille Bacon-Smith includes a subsection on the "Mary Sue" concept in her book, Enterprising Women[26], tying it together with the Canon Sue issue. While not denying that such characters exist, and going into considerable detail as to just why fans write them, she observes that fear of creating a "Mary Sue" may be restricting and even silencing pro as well as fan authors. She cites "Mary Sue" paranoia as one of the sources for the lack of what Johanna Cantor called "believable, competent, and identifiable-with" female characters in today's fan fiction. Bacon-Smith also quotes Edith Cantor describing a story she received from a neofan in 1978. In the cover letter, the fan said "I don't know if I ought to be sending this to you. I'm afraid it's a Mary Sue. Only I don't know what that is."

Amateur writers respond to the emphasis on avoiding Mary Sue in several ways. Some continue to create original characters, but make them as dull, unattractive and colorless as possible. Some do not create original characters at all. Fan critics are liable to judge an original character as Mary Sue unless she is plain looking, has many faults or flaws, and never has any traumatic experiences or distinguishing characteristics.[27]

At Clippercon 1987 (a Star Trek fan convention), Bacon-Smith interviewed a panel of women authors who say they do not include female characters in their stories at all. She quoted one as saying "Every time I've tried to put a woman in any story I've ever written, everyone immediately says, this is a Mary Sue." Bacon-Smith also pointed out that "Participants in a panel discussion in January 1990 noted with growing dismay that any female character created within the community is damned with the term Mary Sue."[28]

Several other writers quoted by Bacon-Smith point out that James T. Kirk could be seen as a Canon Sue, and that the label seems to be used more indiscriminately on female characters who do not behave in accordance with the dominant culture's images and expectations for females as opposed to males.[29] Professional author Ann Crispin is quoted: "The term 'Mary Sue' constitutes a put-down, implying that the character so summarily dismissed is not a true character, no matter how well drawn, what sex, species, or degree of individuality."[30]

In recent years, since the advent of the Internet and particularly fanfiction.net in 1998, criticism of "Mary Sue" has escalated to the point that amateur authors may hesitate to include any of these elements in their writing for fear of being called out as a Suethor. The amount of obsession and dire warnings associated with "Mary Sue" amount to a moral panic within fandom. The appearance of a character deemed Mary Sue is viewed as a license to ridicule and humiliate the character and the author.

The presence of any character identified as Mary Sue now elicits expressions of murderous rage among fan critics. For example, in a 1979 LoC in an issue of S and H, a Starsky & Hutch letterzine, a fan is already well-aware of the term, and what it represented. "With any luck, Sergeant Mary Sue will be strangled in her cradle as she deserves, and readers will be spared the thoroughly embarrassing spectacle of daydreams made public... The defensiveness and ill-will that has sprung up in Trek over this type of story, and the K/S story, which negates its possibility, should serve as an additional warning."

Other LoCs to the same fanzine expressed the opinion that fans wrote S/H slash "because we want to enjoy their sexy bodies making mad, passionate love -- without having to share them with some other broad." Others pointed out that stories with sympathetic heroines were being unfairly classed as Mary Sue, while S/H slash was "safe".[31]

In a 2009 discussion page at TV Tropes, one commenter questioned the practice of flaming young writers who created Mary Sues, suggesting that offering constructive criticism might be better. Her analysis was labeled a "brainfart" and she was told that Mary Sue was "the literary equivalent of publicly soiling yourself."[32] Fan critics compare writers of Mary Sue characters to pedophiles and rapists and advise them to commit suicide.[33]

Groups such as PPC and self-proclaimed "Sueslayers"[34] now appear in online communities. Choosing stories that they judge as containing Mary Sue characters, they proceed to rewrite them, inserting characters based on themselves into the plot for the express purpose of killing the character they have decided is Mary Sue.[35]

Criticism of Sue-phobia

For these and other reasons, the "Mary Sue" concept is facing growing criticism within fandom. [36] [37]

Writing "Mary Sues" is empowering. Writing them being awesome is empowering. Calling Mary Sue, and contributing to an environment such as the above, which encourages the denigration of female awesomeness in fiction, which encourages the bullying and harassment of participants in female awesome, is participating in that culture.
Calling "Mary Sue" in this environment is shaming women for empowering themselves.
There is no substantive harm in writing a "Mary Sue" -- there is no substantive harm in creating a character, original or otherwise, who "warps the world around them", who is "adored by all for no particular reason", who wins the day.
There is substantive harm in bullying and shaming real people for empowering themselves through their writing. Words have power. Words cause harm. Words hurt, and the wounds they leave are deeper and longer-lasting than many physical wounds. I nearly stopped writing entirely, as a teen, after having my work and my OC called "Mary Sue". I have friends who did stop writing because of it.
Before anyone says: "Oh, they/you should just have sucked it up and grown a thicker skin! Learn to accept criticism!"
Think.
You are blaming the victims of bullying for their bullies' behavior.
That is Not. Okay. Ever. [38]

From a 1991 LoC by Jacqueline Taero in the letterzine Southern Enclave:

"I was also taught, very early on, that created characters of the female variety would automatically be dismissed as (1) alter ego, (2) Mary Sue, or (3) both. Well, I use a lot of created characters, some of whom are female. I do not write alter ego characters ... my characters are considerably more interesting than I am and the majority of them have personalities which are, by and large, vastly different from ran my own. And all of them are in some way flawed, because most of them are human beings, and I've never yet seen a perfect one in this life--so I don't consider that they fall into the Mary Sue category. But everywhere I looked, I constantly saw female-created characters being derided. Now, admittedly, some such may well have deserved the scorn and ridicule--but it seemed to be applied with little discrimination." [39]

Are some "Mary Sues" just strong/competent women?

Yeoman Ellen Grey, best known as Dirty Nellie Grey. Some fan critics consider her a Mary Sue although she was intended as a completely realistic, down-to-earth character. By Joni Wagner from a story in Warped Space #21 (1976).

Some fans who write original female characters find that these characters will always be labeled as Mary Sues, no matter how well written or characterized, and see the obsession with the Mary Sue label as evidence of misogyny in fandom.

"A hero achieving many great things over the course of a series is not bad and is not Mary Sue. It's what heroes *do*. Having a dark and/or complicated past is not a bad thing by itself. The problem arises only when, in fanfic, you distort the canon characters out of recognition by introducing a new character, or modifying a canon character, or, to a certain extent, deforming the laws of human nature in writing people's reactions to an original hero. It should not be a put-down for female heroes (or even male ones who are improbably competent.) It should not be wholly focused on self-insertion or ridiculous names. It should not be used as an excuse to not write women in fanfic. Otherwise the term starts to get watered down, and a serious level of sexism creeps in." [40]
"It looks to me like people are utilizing multiple definitions of Mary Sue, and by at least one of them, "any strong female heroine with an interesting life" qualifies. This is upsettingly sexist, especially to a person who hopes to make a living writing strong male *and* female heroes with interesting lives."[41]
"My definitions of "success" have changed--does she need to be pretty? Does a man need to love her? Does everyone need to recognize how awesome she is?--but the initial impetus has not. When I sit down to write a woman now, I think: I want her to be awesome. I want her to achieve things that are important to her. I want her to succeed."[42]

Are all characters based on the author "Mary Sues"?

Paula Smith herself specifically states that characters based on oneself, even if they have a romantic relationship with a canon hero, are not necessarily Mary Sue in the sense that she meant it: "For example, by 1976, we were seeing Paula Block's Sadie Faulwell in the "Landing Party" series in the Warped Space zine. It was a very loose roman à clef about Paula Block and her friends. They were really self-portrait characters, but for whatever reason, they had more of a sense of proportion about them. She had McCoy fall in love with Sadie, but it did not necessarily change McCoy's characterization, and it didn't change anyone's characterization, and the stories were intriguing on their own. Was this a Mary Sue or not a Mary Sue?"[5]

Are all "Mary Sues" author self-inserts?

I think that whenever you create a strong character, there's always that -- some dream-image of yourself. -- Gene Roddenberry

Mary Sue is often denigrated specifically because she's assumed to be a "self-insert", author avatar or alter ego. In fan fiction it is considered extremely gauche and immature for authors to create characters based on themselves. By extension, any original female character, when written by a female, might be seen as a self-insert. In an online discussion taking place in 2003, Livejournal user Carmarthen said she had talked to women who only write male/male slash "because they are afraid that if they write about female characters, they will use their own female perspective in the writing, which leads to Mary Sues." [43]

Stories of time-space displacement, such as Lois Welling's The Displaced, are often assumed to be self-insertion and therefore Mary Sue. [44]

Embracing Mary Sue

Despite criticism, some fans took Mary Sue into their hearts, though in a guarded way. In 1986, one zine asked for submissions for "The Unabashed Mary Sue." "Seeking submissions for an adult 'zine featuring stories which focus on female characters and strong relationships (not limited to romantic!). Erotic content acceptable but the strength of the story is the criteria for selection. Any fan universe qualifies. Names of authors carefully guarded if requested." [45]

A strong woman, and a thumb's up... from "Deception," a story in Crossed Sabers #3, artist is Carol Salemi.

Real Life Mary Sues

Some of the so-called litmus tests for Mary Sue characters include acknowledgements that there are real persons who score as Mary Sues on said tests. The usual example is Bono, the lead singer of the rock group U2, who got 72 points on the Original Mary Sue Litmus Test.

Can someone's real life be so lucky, so perfect, that if they were a fictional character, we'd insist they were a Mary Sue? Maybe. [46] Or at least it's funny to think about: "Dear America, please stop it. Your OMC, Obama, is the worst Sue I've seen in a long time."[47]

Further Reading

  • Everyone's A Superhero Academic paper examining Mary Sue characters as representing "subaltern critique and empowerment" rather than narcissistic wish-fulfillment; and Mary Sue fanfiction as being fair use under copyright law;WebCite
  • So Sue Me community on Dreamwidth for exploring the positive values of Mary Sue type characters; WebCite
  • In Defense Of Mary Sue: She's Not The Enemy "Mary Sue, more often than not, comes down to internalized misogyny and bullying children... I want my fandoms to be better than that." By Livejournal user dubonnetcherry, dated October 15, 2011.); WebCite
  • Who is Mary Sue? by By Sean Kleefeld, posted May 12, 2013, accessed June 16, 2103

References

  1. Avoid Writing A Mary Sue at TvTropes, pages found 2012-11-14. This is an observant and thoughtful article in their "So You Want To" series, going into detail about story elements that might "trigger" a Mary Sue reaction.
  2. A Trekkie's Tale accessed 2013-05-02] A Trekkie’s Tale at archive.org A Trekkie’s Tale; WebCite
  3. A Trekkie's Tale, originally published in Menagerie #2, reprinted in Boldly Writing: A Trekker Fan & Zine History, 1967-1987(pdf) by Joan Marie Verba (accessed 15 Aug. 2008).
  4. The zine in question was apparently Sylvia Bump's Double Exposure. In an editorial in Menagerie #10, Paula cautions fan editors that their zines should "NOT look like Double Exposure, a handtyped, handcrayoned Spockie zine of some years back which had dozens of little yellow ducks tracking across its pages."
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Interview by Cynthia W. Walker. A conversation with Paula Smith, in Transformative Works and Cultures, Vol 6 (2011). (Accessed 15 March 2011)
  6. Every Trekzine? Or was this like some fans' perception, described on p. 64 of Boldly Writing, that "all Star Trek fanzines nowadays are K/S" when it was really less than half of them?
  7. There are no such stories in Spockanalia, T-Negative, Tricorder Readings, Eridani Triad, Pastaklan Vesla or Babel, for instance.
  8. Sondra Marshak, Myrna Culbreath, Joan Winston and Jacqueline Lichtenberg, Star Trek Lives! (Bantam, 1975)
  9. Laura M. Hale, Historical Perspective on Mary Sue, covers some of this history.
  10. Several blogs and online magazines criticize Stieg Larsson's character Mikael Blomqvist as a Mary Sue.
  11. This is more or less the definition in Recreating the Adolescent Self: Mary Sue in Camille Bacon-Smith, Enterprising Women, Television Fandom and the Creation of Popular Myth (Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1994), p. 94.
  12. alias_sqbr, Thoughts About Mary Sue, 2010-03-21.
  13. KLangley, comment in Thoughts about Mary Sue], dated March 21, 2010; accessed Feb. 8, 2011; WebCite.
  14. WebCite
  15. When is a Mary Sue Not A Mary Sue?/WebCite
  16. Original Fiction Mary Sue Litmus Test
  17. "I feel that people have become accustomed to shouting 'Mary Sue!' far to [sic] quickly and I think these kinds of tests are not helping.... The first is that they are all anti-description, the second is the whole ratings thing, and the third is that many of the questions have nothing to do with the character's character but rather are plot points or clichés or are far to [sic] common place to even be considered something that causes Mary Sueism.."The Original Anti "Universal Mary Sue Litmus Test at wiccananime.com.
  18. "I cannot stress strongly enough what a BAD, BAD, BAD, BAD way to write a character this is. You don’t put a character together like an equation. You don’t give her a negative score for positive attributes and a positive score for negative attributes, and then jiggle the figures until the character profile fits within the “not a Mary” category. If you do things like this, you will end up with completely false characters with a string of bizarre personality traits." From "The Fear of Mary Sue on impishidea.com, a fan critic's blog.
  19. Sparklypoo comic
  20. Marysues at Livejournal.
  21. Canon Sues at Livejournal.
  22. from an interview of Paula Block in Menagerie #16
  23. Original Characters by Silverfox at How To Write Fanfiction.
  24. Tips for Fanfiction Writers by Cmar on rangerfiction.net.
  25. The words to which Cantor refers are Greetings from the President of the United States. You are hereby ordered to report for induction. This is the opening of the U.S. military draft notice received by hundreds of thousands of young men before the draft was discontinued in 1973. Those who received this letter, especially during the Vietnam era, often reacted with fear and anger.
  26. Bacon-Smith, Camille, Enterprising Women, Television Fandom and the Creation of Popular Myth. Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1992. The entire Mary Sue subsection is on line at Google Books.
  27. "Everyone seems so terrified of making their character a Mary Sue that they're going to ridiculous heights to make their characters/plots blandly average... even in genres and settings where everyone having some measure of the fantastic is not only forgivable, but preferred. These often end up producing Anti Sues that still dominate the spotlight unfairly in spite of the total lack of anything noteworthy of them.

    "This is especially prevalent mostly due to the misuse of the Mary Sue accusation — it has evolved from something that was reserved for genuinely annoying characters to simply complaining about characters you don't like, with several "Mary Sue tests" including stuff that really isn't Sueish...just stuff the author of the test dislikes and wants to get rid of by calling it one of the Common Mary Sue Traits." From a comment in the article on Cliche Storms, TVTropes, by an unknown editor. Had to have been written before December 24, 2010. Page found 2013-02-05.
  28. Bacon-Smith, p. 110. A footnote states this was reported to her by Judy Chien, who attended the panel at MostEastlyCon 1990 in Newark.
  29. Smith, p. 97.
  30. Bacon-Smith, p. 98.
  31. In S&H 1-5 and S&H 11-15 .
  32. Just Bugs Me, Mary Sue Discussion Page on tvtropes; cached at WebCite.
  33. "You should be ashamed for subjecting us to this character. You should be ashamed for creating this character. In fact, you should just be ashamed, full stop." Commentary on the fan discussion board for My Life as a Teenage Robot;WebCite.
  34. These people go into considerable detail and can be said to have formed their own fan universes.
  35. Try a google search on +"kill the Sue" sometime.
  36. on mary sue policing and why i cannot abide it (Accessed April 10, 2010)
  37. goldjadeocean. Actually, I'm just lazy and blogging the short version instead (Accessed April 10, 2010); WebCite.
  38. Storming the Battlements or: Why the Culture of Mary Sue Shaming is Bully Culture. (Accessed April 10, 2010)
  39. 'Real Life', letter in Southern Enclave ca. January 1991, p. 28.
  40. Alara Rogers. Make up your Mind: what is a Mary Sue? January 30th 2003. Accessed 19 November 2008
  41. Alara Rogers, Make up your Mind: what is a Mary Sue? Posted January 30th 2003. Accessed 19 November 2008
  42. Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On, Dreamwidth blog, April 10, 2010. Accessed Feb. 11, 2011.
  43. What I don't understand about the fear of Mary Sue, discussion by Carmarthen, 2003-01-26.
  44. The Displaced by Lois Welling, first published as a zine in 1978. (accessed 25 July 2009)
  45. from Datazine #42
  46. According to her biographers, such glowingly angelic reports were written about the young Helen Keller that staff at the Perkins School for the Blind seem to have regarded her as a Mary Sue. Their antagonism towards her and her governess finally culminated in the scandal of The Frost King.
  47. LJ post by mistress_siana, entitled "Dear America, please stop it."

"Ooooh Spock, you were sooooo good! But I fear I have one small confession to make..." "What's that, my darling Mary Sue?" "I'm a Klingon agent. Bye bye, Spocko!" BLAM!! BLAM!! thud....

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