Slash

From Fanlore
Jump to: navigation, search

You may be looking for the 2016 film Slash.

Synonyms: m/m, dudeslash, boyslash, guyslash, m/m
See also: Femslash, Yaoi, The Premise, Hatstand, Slash Cons
Click here for related articles on Fanlore.

Slash is a type of fanwork in which two (or more) characters of the same sex or gender are placed in a sexual or romantic situation with each other. Slash can also be a verb; to slash is to create a slash fanwork or to interpret the chemistry between the characters in the source text as homoerotic. The adjective form is slashy.

Slash more commonly refers to male/male pairings, with femslash being used more often to refer to female/female scenarios.

History of the Term

See Slash Terminology

Fannish tradition holds that the word "slash" originated with Star Trek The Original Series fan fiction, when K/S was used as the label for a story where the relationship between Kirk and Spock was laced with sexual tension, whether it was acted on or not. This label allowed fans to differentiate those sexual relationship stories from the ones about Kirk and Spock’s friendship, which were sometimes labelled using "&". As fandoms gathered around new films and television series, the / mark became common as an indicator of a sexual relationship between same-sex characters.

Terms like gen and het arose to distinguish these types of stories from slash. Although heterosexual narratives can of course be explicit on the level of an R, X or NC17 rating, they were more acceptable than slash at that time. Labeling a story as slash could provide a warning of criminal risk as well. In the early 1970s, any literature depicting homosexuality, even if not explicit, was considered pornography in most states (see Slash Controversies#Illegality of Slash) and illegal to be sent through the U.S. mail.

History of the Genre

See History of Slash Fandom for the main article.

While it is possible that fans wrote and shared slash stories about Holmes and Watson, Ilya and Napoleon, James and Artemus, or Buz and Tod, it was Star Trek: The Original Series that popularized the slash subgenre. The first such story may have been The Ring of Soshern, written by Jennifer Guttridge in 1967 or 1968 and circulated only privately.

The first slash story to be published in a fanzine was "A Fragment Out of Time" by Diane Marchant, published in Grup in 1974. After this, other Star Trek slash stories appeared in some fanzines, slowly picking up steam through the end of the decade with entire fanzines devoted to slash, and eventually slash conventions.

In the 1980s, more fandoms joined the slash scene, including Starsky & Hutch, The Professionals, and Blake's 7. As more m/m pairs were slashed, fans started to conceptualize slash as a genre unto itself rather than individual phenomena unique to particular characters.

The absence of slash in Robin of Sherwood 1980s fandom provides a case study of how insecure slash fandom was about itself and its legitimacy, but in the internet age, slash has become increasingly normalized.

Today, Rule 34 illustrates the wide variety of slash pairings and combinations, that any conceivable fictional or real people pairing, inanimate object anthropomorphic, or crossover, has probably been written (and if not, there's always Rule 35).

Defining Slash

Because the early slash community kept such a low profile (as above), there weren't clearly written definitions of the term that people could refer to as they got on the net and came in contact with the existing community. So a term might experience fannish drift as newcomers used the term according to the way they interpreted it, rather than how the existing community used it. Slash was a term that experienced fannish drift in this manner. It has also evolved over the years in response to canonically gay characters (and canon same-sex pairings) becoming more common in mainstream television shows and movies.

During the initial era of K/S and other early slash pairings, and issues of "slashy subtext" and "slash goggles"aside, no one suggested that K/S and other pairings were established deliberately, as a matter of canon.[1] Slash was defined as fanfic containing noncanonical same-sex media character pairings. As is easy to see on countless discussion forums these days, the definition of slash has become more elastic. Many fans consider slash to mean, simply, a same-sex pairing (thus, they refer to Queer as Folk fan fiction as slash, though the characters are gay in canon). Still others look at, say, Stargate: SG-1 fan fiction pairings of Jack/Daniel and Jack/Samantha and consider them both to be slash relationships, because neither is canon and both are designated with a slash mark.

Thus, at different times, fans have tried to define exactly what slash is, and what it is not.

Defining Slash
"It's only slash if it's about a same-sex couple." In the X-Files, stories of romance between Mulder/Scully would occasionally be labelled as slash; in this sense, slash was being used to mean any non-canon relationship (there were indications that certain fans wanted it to be known as het slash[2]). The focus of the definition slipped, and the heterosexual aspect of the relationship was irrelevant to it being slash. However, in nearly every modern fandom, the definition of slash has settled down to mean same-sex pairings only.
"It's only slash if it's about a non-canon (or 'unconventional') relationship." The same fannish drift that led to the definition of slash as any non-canonical relationship then led to some fans objecting to canonical same-sex relationships being called slash. Generally, in current usage, writings which include pairings of canon same-sex couples (for instance, Christian/Oliver on Verbotene Liebe, Brian/Justin on Queer as Folk US, or Willow/Tara on Buffy the Vampire Slayer) are usually called slash, or femslash if about women.
"It's only slash if it's about the slow evolution of feelings between partners." This was one of the first definitions; however, it leaves out enemy!slash, as well as a lot of fun crossover pairings.
"It's only slash if they were both straight before they met each other." This was apparently a rearguard action to preserve we're not gay, we just love each other or men having sex with men (MSM) without considering themselves homosexuals: by this definition, if either half of the pairing was gay or bi before they met each other, it would be gay fiction, not slash.
"It's only slash if it's part of an established slash fandom." This was a reaction against the proliferation of small fandoms, arguing that a necessary component of a slash story is that it is produced by a member of a slash community, as a way of having a conversation about the characters—either building on, or disagreeing with, concepts from previous stories.
"It's only slash if it's written by a slasher." This argument is possibly a reaction against the increasing public awareness of slash; these days it is easy to find slightly mocking parodies of slash written by people outside of fandom [3]. Some would argue "it's not slash if it wasn't written by fans, for fans".
"It's only slash if it's written about characters from an existing source text, not original characters." As the popularity of this specific type of m/m romance as a genre has grown, some people have begun using the term 'original slash' to refer to original m/m fiction (published or amateur) that feels more like slash than traditional gay porn or what is considered typical of gay literature. However, many slash fans feel that slash can only refer to fanworks, never original fiction. [4]

Controversies Over Slash

See Slash Controversies for the main article.

Slash has been surrounded by controversy since its inception. Some topics:

  • early objections to Kirk/Spock sexual stories in the 1970s -- often by well-known fans. One fan recollects Bjo Trimble describing K/S slashers as a "bunch of twisted sickos".
  • entirely justified fears of legal prosecution: copyright and obscenity laws
  • slash as inherently out of character
  • disagreement even among slash fans as to "what is slashy" and "what should be slashed"

Slash and Gay

See Slash vs. Gay for the main article.

As long as slash fans have been calling their stories slash, there have been conversations about how slash relates to LGBT issues. In early years, it was thought that slash was by definition about two heterosexual men]. Some gay men have voiced opposition to heterosexual women appropriating gay male experience. Literary questions of the differences between slash and published LGBT fiction have also been discussed.

Slash as a Revitalizing Agent, Slash as Same-Old Same-Old

Something New

Some fans feel that slash offered a new take on an old fandom, bringing new writers, readers and their interests to the table:

In 1984, one famous zine's author said:
I hoped Thrust would make some kind of mark, both as a forum for writing and as a forum for the analysis of the K/S theme…. But it was the K/S theme itself that electrified fandom. As it added a dimension to the relationship between the two men, it added a new and lively dimension to fandom, providing a complex and invigorating idea to ponder, an emotional reference that took fandom by storm. I believe that the K/S theme has played a large part in keeping active fandom alive. [5]

In 1991, another fan writes:

Years ago before there were Star Trek movies, ST had become pretty 'rutty,' too. Then along came K/S. No matter now you feel about homoerotic literature, I think you have to give K/S two things: One, it blasted ST fan fiction out of the ruts [editor's comment: some would say that now, years later, it's created its own ruts!]; and two, it kept ST fandom alive and kicking --and fighting--until the ST movies came along and revitalized the whole fandom. Now I'm not suggesting that SW fandom needs slash fiction to save it; although I'll admit I've always been puzzled by the lack of good SW slash fiction. I'm just suggesting that SW fanfiction can be saved--if the people responsible for producing it are sufficiently motivated. [6]

Something Old

Other fans feel that slash is simply retreads of hetero-normative subjects given a new hat, often by casting one person in the couple as "the girl". [need examples]

Somewhere In-Between

A fan in 2002 wrote:
I am continually astounded by slash's audacity, diversity, and constantly changing nature... and continually frustrated by its repetitiveness, naiveté, and lack of imagination. Try as I can, I can't stay away. [7]

Why Slash?

A question every metafan feels compelled to answer. See: Why Slash?

Slash and Male Intimacy

While the majority of Textual Poachers is not about slash, it was one of the first academic books to address it respectfully and thoughtfully. At a 1993 panel at Escapade, the book's author, Henry Jenkins, described his beginning awareness of slash and what he felt were its possibilities:

... yes, I am both a male and a slash fan, and have really become excited, because I think that slash really speaks to men, including straight men, in a way that a lot of popular culture doesn't. The sorts of themes I talk about in terms of slash in the book, that breaking through of the barriers to intimacy between men, the creation of communication across the kind of walls that we as men put up around ourselves, is a very profound fantasy that a lot of men have. And I think back about the reality of my friendships with other men... One of my best friends as an undergraduate just about died of cancer, and I didn't know it. He just had disappeared for nine months. He couldn't communicate to me this vulnerability, and he was seriously ill before I ever found out and went to his bedside and we talked about it for the first time. But that was the reality, that I didn't notice, he wasn't communicating, and we were both into our little walls to the point that none of the stuff that's in slash was a possibility. The thought of crying, of communicating, of talking between men is so rare in our culture that slash really represents to me one of the few places where you can talk about those questions, where you can engage with it and fantasize about it. And I wish I had friendships with other men that were as good as the sorts of images that crop up in slash. But it's something that politically is very important to me, that I, going back to an undergraduate, during the same time period, ironically enough, was doing male consciousness-raising sessions. And I had been talking about masculinity as an issue, and a lot of my own writing that isn't about fandom deals with questions of gender or masculinity in one way or another. But it was slash, I think, that really opened me up fully to the implications at a most personal level of what I was actually talking about, and helped me understand that much better. So this book has been both personally and professionally a really important one to me. It's one that was intended to be written as a fan as well as an academic, to both academic and fan audiences. I've been gratified by the responses on both sides.

Outsider Reactions To Slash

Main article: Attitudes Toward Fanfiction

Outsider reactions vary. Fans often do not distinguish between academics or the press writing about slash - both carry the same potential (in fannish minds) for ridicule and mischaracterization.

Fan fiction is often synonymous with slash in the press. Non-fans reading these articles could easily receive the impression that all or most fan fiction is slash.

Slash has also been misdescribed in the press as a genre exclusive to straight middle-class women, and even as a kind of "mommy porn" written by housewives in their copious spare time. Many slash authors may have portrayed themselves in this way in order to keep anonymity, since writing and mailing explicit homosexual narrative (fanfic or not) could get you jail time in the '70s. The real slash demographic has always included Lesbians, bisexuals, and transgender women along with trans men and male-identifying gay and straight men. (see the Livejournal community Men Who Slash) -- who, even today, might use female names just to fit in.

Slash Meta/Further Reading

See also Category:Slash Meta.

1991

1993

1996

1997

1998

1999

2001

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2010

2012

2014

2015

2016

External Resources

References

  1. Other than by Sondra Marshak and Myrna Culbreath, that is. The story of how they maneuvered Gene Roddenberry into considering Kirk & Spock's friendship in terms of "the Greek ideal" has become legendary.
  2. 'Must. Not. Comment.', retrieved October 4, 2008.
  3. Iron Man 2: The Edge Of Reason (Tony Stark/Mr. Darcy), last accessed November 10, 2008
  4. Dusk Peterson, What is Original Slash?, retrieved November 21, 2008
  5. from an interview with Carol Frisbie in Not Tonight, Spock! #3
  6. from a June 1991 LoC in the Star Wars letterzine Southern Enclave: Southern Enclave, June 1991.
  7. The Annex Reviews, 4/14/02, post to alt.sex.stories.gay.moderated


Related Concepts, Fandoms, Terms, Fanworks
See also Slash Goggles, Slash Tropes, Timeline of Slashed Sources, Essential Links for Slash Readers, Why Slash