February 17, 2015
Interested in Fanlore behind the scenes? Wiki is recruiting! To answer questions and just for fun we are holding a chat on Saturday 21 February 17:00 UTC. You can find more details here.
December 28, 2014
There will be a hopefully short Fanlore downtime on January 2nd, starting at 7am UTC. (details)
December 7, 2014
The Wiki committee has posted an update and staffing announcements at the Fanlore Dreamwidth community.
November 3, 2014
October 9, 2014
Are you new to creating entries on Fanlore? Have you been editing for a while but would like to talk to other people working on Fanlore?
Whatever your connection to Fanlore, you are cordially invited to an editing chat for questions, discussions, or just to talk about Fanlore editing. The chat will be held on Saturday, October 11, 2014 from 6:30 to 8:30pm UTC (in your time zone), in the Fanlore chat room on Campfire.
Come join Wiki staffers, gardeners and fellow editors and find out more about how you can help develop the entries on Fanlore!
August 31, 2014
The Wiki Committee is pleased to announce Stub September 2014!
Stub September is a month-long challenge whose aim is to improve the 1600+ pages on Fanlore that are identified as stubs. There are also two other types of articles to focus on this year, pages that need expansion and examples wanted.
This year, we have chosen to focus on specific types of stubs during each week of the month. See the Fanlore Dreamwidth for more information and announcements of weekly themes.
June 23, 2014
Interested in Fanlore behind the scenes? Wiki is recruiting! To answer questions and just for fun we are holding a chat on Saturday 28 June 14:00 UTC. You can find more details here.
April 16, 2014
February 25, 2014
The Wiki committee has posted an End of the Year/Annual Review Post with information for the 2014 term.
February 15, 2014
We have almost reached half a million edits! We will celebrate in the Fanlore chatroom on Sunday, 8pm UTC. (details)
October 29, 2013
Interested in Fanlore behind the scenes? Wiki is recruiting! We are looking for two staff members and a design specialist, and of course new gardeners are always welcome. You can find more details here.
June 10, 2013
Fanlore will soon have 25,000 articles! We are holding a trivia contest to celebrate: Fanlore Milestone Celebration.
March 16, 2013
After the start of the new OTW term there is an update from the Wiki committee that also refers to recent discussions about the Image policy: Wiki News February 2013.
December 26, 2012
An update from the Wiki committee about ongoing Wiki projects can be found here.
December 16, 2012
Fanlore will be offline for an hour while Systems does some maintenance work on Wednesday, December 19 at 06:00 UTC. (What time is it where I live?)
During the last few days Fanlore users may have been experiencing temporary problems connecting to the site. The reason is that we have been running out of space on Fanlore's hard disk drive. In some ways this has been a good problem to have because it indicates how the site has been growing!
Our systems team has already done some short-term clean-up that should solve the problem for now. It's possible that between now and that next maintenance period you may still encounter some small problems. If so, please do report them to us, either on Dreamwidth or by a direct email to the Wiki staff. 
December 1, 2012
Site design update: Because of accessibility issues we reverted back to the default skin. We hope to have the issue fixed soon.
November 23, 2012
Fanlore upgrade on Saturday, November 24, at 22:00 UTC. (What time is it where I am?) There should be no downtime, but you will not be able to edit Fanlore for a short time.
November 17, 2012
Fanlore editors, please take the Strategic Planning Committee's anonymous survey! See the Dreamwidth post for more details.
September 20, 2012
You are cordially invited to a Fanlore editing chat for questions, discussions, or just to talk about Fanlore editing, on
Stub September is still ongoing - talk about what you did so far, what you still want to do, and recruit other people to help you!
September 3, 2012
July 1, 2012
The Wiki Committee has posted an update on the status of fanwork subcategories. Some categories have been created, and we are discussing others on the dreamwidth post.
June 18, 2012
The Wiki Committee has posted a proposal for creating fanwork subcategories. Go to the dreamwidth post to share your thoughts or email us directly!
May 18, 2012
Because of necessary server maintenance Fanlore will be down briefly (according to plan no more than 30 minutes) on Tuesday, May 29th, 22:00 - 01:00 EDT (Wednesday, May 30th, 02:00 - 05:00 UTC/GMT).
April 19, 2012
- The Wiki Committee has updates and a request for input on the proposed wiki forums. See the dreamwidth community.
- News from our parent organization, the OTW: If you have about 15 minutes to spare, we'd love you to take our OTW Community Survey. It's intended to gather feedback about our projects (including Fanlore) and the organization as a whole, as well as information we can use as a basis for outreach. In short, it'll help us figure out how to serve you better. The survey runs from April 18 to May 2 and is located here.
April 18, 2012
April 10, 2012
April 6, 2012
As part of the Archive of Our Own's April Showers challenge, we're hosting two Fanlore editing chats this month. The first one is short notice -- Friday 08:00 GMT -- and the second one will be on or around April 14. Join us in the Fanlore chat room to ask questions or just hang out and edit!
February 25, 2012
Hello, everyone! The wiki committee just held its first meeting of 2012. Our roster for this year is listed on Fanlore:Wiki Committee. We hope to get the ball rolling on Fanlore forums (more on that later), defeating spam, and lots of other projects around the wiki! As always if you have questions, concerns, or suggestions, feel free to contact us.
February 9, 2012
Two new challenges: Fanlore Valentines! 
- Look up the Fanlore article on a fanwork you love to see if any reviews of the work are quoted on the page. If not, express your love by finding a review and adding a brief quote (with link) to the page. (If Fanlore doesn't have a page for this fanwork at all, feel free to start the page. Tell us why you love it!)
- What challenges, fests, gift exchanges, etc., are running right now? Check to see if Fanlore has articles about them. If the article exists, add up-to-date information; if the article doesn't exist, create it!
January 18, 2012
Love Fanlore? Don't let SOPA/PIPA strike the first blow against internet freedom: this proposed US legislation will affect fans globally. Speak out now to protect freedom of expression on the internet - http://bit.ly/Ahi7ZH
November 24, 2011
Systems is planning to upgrade Fanlore's server so they can install Squid (for page caching) to help the site run faster. A brief downtime is scheduled for 16:00 UTC Friday November 25 2011, so Fanlore will be inaccessible during that time.
November 23, 2011
November 16, 2011
The Wiki Committee has posted a second draft of the image policy FAQ addition for comment. Check out the text of the draft on dreamwidth!
Based on user feedback (and fail_fandomanon!), we've updated Fanlore:Contact. Please continue to let us know if anything is broken or outdated on the wiki.
November 11, 2011
Fanlore, at long last, has a Twitter! You can find our informal news updates at fanlore_news. Feel free to tweet at us your concerns, thoughts, and suggestions -- we'll do our best to reply!
For those of you uninterested in Twitter, fear not: all important updates will proceed through direct email and this Dreamwidth community, as well as being mentioned on the Main Page of the wiki itself. Also, we hope to embed the Twitter feed neatly on the Main Page in the future.
October 26, 2011
The Wiki Committee is planning to turn off OpenID at some point as it is a hard service to support, and many OpenID servers (such as LiveJournal) have issues with their stability. However, we have 300+ accounts that use OpenID, or who have OpenID registered on their account. If you use OpenID, please follow these instructions to preserve access to your account.
We are not in any rush to turn off OpenID, and please feel free to ask for assistance — moving people over may take some time, and we'll send out another email/post another post closer to the time when we are ultimately ready to turn it off.
October 18, 2011
October 6, 2011
At long last, a new challenge! The Total Braindump Challenge (from July) is definitely closed, and we now present....
In celebration of Ada Lovelace Day (October 7), why not create a Fanlore article about your favorite female character who is a scientist, engineer, or mathematician? Tell us about your fannish experiences with these characters — the women themselves, the relationships they’re in (het, lesbian, canonical, fannish, etc.), the fanworks they star in — whatever you can think of! You can stub out a new page, or add a sprinkle of information on an existing page.
October 3, 2011
The wiki committee has been working on some additions and clarifications to our FAQ materials and policy pages. We present all three of them on the DW community, for your perusal and commentary. We look forward to your feedback; if there are no objections, we'll make these changes within the next few days.
September 26, 2011
Hi all. Recent conversations between the wiki committee and some Fanlore users have inspired us to offer these friendly reminders:
There are two kinds of pages about fans on Fanlore: userpages, and pages about people. Anyone can edit their own userpage to say whatever they want to say; each userpage is edited by the user in question, and not by others.
Pages about people (unlike userpages) are group-edited. Fanlore is a collaborative project, and no individual user "owns" any given page -- even the page about themselves.
If you are a fan and there is a page in Fanlore about you, you are welcome to edit that page as long as you abide by Fanlore's editorial policies and our ethical standards for community content; of course, others are also welcome to edit the page about you as long as they abide by those editorial policies and community standards, too.
August 12, 2011
Fanlore now has its own copy of the FixBunching template, which lines up block-level items along the left or right margin.
July 18, 2011
The What's Hot Now challenge is officially closed! (Remember, you are always welcome to take up a previous challenge at any time; check out our previous challenges here.) We now present...
Total Braindump Challenge: "The best of times, the worst of times..."
Pick an event in fandom that, for better or worse, people are still talking about years (or months) later. If it doesn't yet have an article on Fanlore, create one, and throw into it everything you can think of. Tag the page with stub and possibly also add the words "total braindump" somewhere near the beginning, so later people know they're actively encouraged to clean up the page, add details, and move things around.
July 10, 2011
It's the middle of 2011, and the Fanlore wiki committee is feeling the need for some new energy and new enthusiasm. We're also short on members, so we're putting out a call: we are looking for more fans to join the Fanlore Wiki Committee!
June 26, 2011
A new challenge awaits!
We challenge you to contemplate and document What’s Hot Now -- What’s the most recent fanwork (story, vid, piece of fanart) you’ve seen and loved? Create a page for it and write about why it is awesome.
Remember, you can always go back to the Red Print challenge at any time! We welcome new edits on old challenges :)
June 24, 2011
The OTW's Wiki Committee will host a second introductory chat to editing Fanlore on Sunday, June 26 at 17:00 UTC in the Fanlore chatroom on Campfire. The chat is aimed at both current and new editors.
Come join us! The chatroom can be accessed at https://fanarchive.campfirenow.com/60af4
June 18, 2011
The transcript from the May 28 Fanlore chat session has been posted to the Dreamwidth community.
The wiki committee has also posted a revised category proposal to the Dreamwidth community.
June 6, 2011
Thanks to all who attended our introductory chat for those who are interested in editing the wiki!
We've been asked to share the chat transcript so that those who weren't present can learn what they missed. Before we do that, we want to make sure that everyone who was present is comfortable with public posting of the transcript -- but we don't have contact info for everyone who attended. So we're putting out a call: if you were present at that chat, please let us know if you'd be comfortable with the chat transcript becoming public?
We're working now on scheduling our next training chat. The chat will be open to the public, and this time we'll make sure everyone knows from the beginning of the chat that we'd like to share the transcript. 
May 27, 2011
The chat is aimed at both current and new editors.
May 21, 2011
The wiki committee has posted to the Dreamwidth community a category proposal for creating a more flexible fandom category structure.
May 7, 2011
Your next mission, should you choose to accept it, is to look up your favorite fandoms on Fanlore, and when you run into a thicket of red words (which means pages are waiting to be created), click on something you can’t believe no one’s written about yet!
April 29, 2011
The last of the April Showers fandoms are up! Sorry about the delay in posting them! We invite you to tell us your history, your stories; share your memories and experiences; preserve your culture — in these fandoms or in any others! Check out the April Showers challenge tag on the AO3 for inspiration on other fandoms to contribute to — or, if you don't see your fandoms there yet, all the more reason to share!
April 18, 2011
Two news items today:
- The front page text has been revised. Check it out!
- By request, the wiki committee is creating a Chronology category for history articles, plus date categories.
April 12, 2011
In keeping with April Showers, let's expand the range of examples on Fanlore! A lot of the examples given for fannish tropes and genres documented on Fanlore are fanworks from just a few fandoms. Find a trope or genre you like and add a link to a fanwork from your fandom. April Showers fandoms (first six already available, next group of six soon to come!) and all other fandoms welcome — just expand, expand, expand!
March 29, 2011
As the observation of Women’s History Month in many parts of the world wraps up, why not give one last hurrah to the amazing women in our favourite canons? Tell us all about your fannish experiences with women characters — the women themselves, the relationships they’re in (het, lesbian, canonical, fannish, whatever!), the fanworks they star in — whatever you can think of! Stub out pages, or add a sprinkle of information on an existing page — let’s show how much we love these amazing women!
March 27, 2011
Fanlore's server will be down briefly on Tuesday, March 29, at 20:00 UTC
March 15, 2011
Pick a page - stub or not! - of a fandom, character, relationship, trope, person, or anything else at Fanlore. Add five details to it, large or small - bullet-point lists or full paragraphs, whatever you can think of!
February 28, 2011
Promote Fanlore participation to your fannish friends! Fanlore benefits most from multiple perspectives, and our contributors are our best advocates. Tell a friend about Fanlore, and encourage them to join in and document their particular corner of fandom, or to add another perspective on existing pages!
February 19, 2011
Fanlore will be down for approximately two hours on Sunday, February 20, starting at noon UTC -8.
February 8, 2011
Writing about yourself might feel a bit too self-congratulatory... but writing about a friend won't! Do you have a friend or just someone you admire who's done something awesome in fandom? Stub out a page about that person and the awesome fannish things they do!
January 25, 2011
How did you come into fandom? Did someone show you the way in, or did you find fandom via google? When did you enter fandom? What was your first fandom? What does fandom mean to you?
This week, edit your user or fan page to include the story of how you got here and why you stayed.
December 16, 2010
November 16, 2010
A Thousand Ships challenge has closed, and a new challenge has been posted: First Vid. Start a page about the first vid or AMV you ever saw, the one that made you want to see more of them!
November 4, 2010
Both the Image Policy and the Copyright page have been revised; please check out the discussion on the dreamwidth community. User:Awils1 has also added a fancy hack to the image summary template that generates a standard copyright statement when you type "CC", "Fair", or "Permission" into the copyright field: try it out! Finally, Fanlore's latest challenge is a thousand ships.
October 21, 2010
A new version of the Image Policy has been released for comment, along with a set of image templates. We welcome questions, comments, and feedback on the policy and on the image templates. Please check out the discussion on the dreamwidth community.
October 19, 2010
A Lot of Character challenge: Pick a favorite character. Make a list of the three or four fanworks which most accurately capture what you love about that character. Then add those fanworks to the page about that character (or, if there isn’t a page yet, start one, and add those fanworks to the new page you’ve just stubbed out.) Then invite your friends to play along, and see what fanworks they add to those pages to complement the ones you thought of!
October 5, 2010
A new floating category, Tropes & Genres, has been created. You can find it under the Browse heading on the sidebar. Check it out!
September 24, 2010
First Fandom Challenge
What was your first fandom? If it already has a page in Fanlore, go add something -- even if it's just a snip of memory ("[Your_name_here] remembers XYZ...") or a link to a notable fanwork. If it doesn't yet have a page, stub one out! Remember to focus on the fandom, not on canon. And this isn't just for live-action or fiction fandoms -- if your first fandom was anime or RPF or something else entirely, we want those pages, too!
September 18, 2010
September 15, 2010
We've created a new Intro to Fanlore FAQ. It is a summary of some existing policies that allows new editors to quickly get a sense of how Fanlore works. We've put it out for public comment on the Dreamwidth Community. Please take a look and comment.
September 9, 2010
New challenge: Profile-A-Comm
Your mission, should you choose to accept it: pick a community that you belong to and create a page for it on Fanlore. You can use the community template to fill in the basic information; then the fun part, writing about the community and why it’s nifty keen. What are conversations like? Is it active or are posts sporadic? Has it changed over time? Tell us about it! This challenge will run for roughly two weeks.
August 31, 2010
We have updated the Administrators page and set out a list of tasks to clarify their role. Please take a look at the changes and add your feedback to the dreamwidth community discussion post. We are also looking for volunteers to serve as Gardeners and Admins.
August 27, 2010
We've returned to posting challenges to the Fanlore community on dreamwidth. The current challenge is the Pink Sparkly Hearts Challenge, which invites you to make a page about the first fanwork you fell in love with. Fic, vid, fanart, filk, whatever you want to draw pink sparkly hearts around! The next challenge will go live on or around September 5.
July 1, 2010
Some questions have been raised about how to structure the categories for some particularly complex fandoms, and the wiki committee has come up with solutions in the cases of CSI and LOTR: Each CSI show now has its own subcategory under the main CSI cat, and Tolkien has been created to be the parent category for The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit, and The Silmarillion. Please let us know if you have questions about (or solutions for) what category to use for any other fandoms.
June 29, 2010
On the menu to your left under Browse you'll now find a link to the Wish List. This is a working list of tasks (large or small) that need doing on Fanlore, so if you're cruising by with some editing or writing time on your hands and aren't sure where to start, just check the list and see what appeals.
June 25, 2010
Wiki Committee Monthly Report for June
Implementation of the Fandom as Category policy is finally winding down, with only a few more small fandoms left that need categories. We've also added two new categories, Poetry and Newsgroups, based on specific feedback. We continue to update the help pages and the Image policy is still in the hands of the OTW's Legal committee. Several members of the committee held a panel at CON.TXT this past weekend with the goal of encouraging more participation in Fanlore.
May 19, 2010
The wiki committee has decided to drop the previous policy of adding a page to not just the most specific category, but to every parent category in the hierarchy above that child category. Previously, a page on fanfiction would have been categorized under "Fan Activities" as well as "Fiction Writing". However, as users have pointed out, adding pages to their parent and grandparent categories has resulted in top-level categories that are too heavily populated to be useful for browsing. The new procedure is to add pages only to the most specific categories that fit and not to their parent categories. For example, a fanzine page would get the "Fanworks," "Zines," and "Fiction Writing" categories, but not the "Fan Activities" or "Print Media" categories.
Because categories are automatically included with some templates, the templates have been edited so that they comply with the changes.
An exception to the new rule: We want to keep main fandom pages in the "Fandom by Source Text" category (where they are now) until we've finished the fandom category project.
May 12, 2010
We've posted some of our decisions about implementation of the fandom category policy to the Dreamwidth Community. You can find the post here.
May 2, 2010
Wiki Committee Monthly Report for April
Wiki has had a very busy month! As most people already know, the Wiki committee welcomed new member Aethel~, who has been doing amazing work with our help pages. We have posted two new policies. The Fandoms as Category Policy is now final, and we have begun the process of creating the new categories and links to go along with that. The Image Policy has been posted as a draft on the wiki and on the Fanlore Dreamwidth community for comments for the last week. We’ve received a ton of good feedback on the policy and it’s now headed back to the drawing board for revisions based on that feedback.
April 23, 2010
We have posted the draft copy of our new Image Policy for review. \o/ Because of the constraints of the wiki, the discussion is being held on the Fanlore Dreamwidth community. Please do let us know what you think. We would particularly like input on how you would define "high res" and "low res" images for Fanlore. We will pull the draft for revision based on comments on April 30th.
April 21, 2010
The revised draft of the Fandom as Category policy change has been posted to the wiki. We invite discussion on it at the Dreamwidth community here. There will be a post directing people to that site in OTW News as well as an announce on the community.
We posted a new challenge on the Fanlore community at Dreamwidth last night. Our goal is to flesh out the Doctor Who pages on Fanlore. The online fandom and fanfic subpages particularly are crying for details. What about the Rose wars? How about Donna? We have a pattern for knitting the scarf, but not one for knitting the adipose that was so popular at the art auction at CON.TXT a couple of years ago. Any notable vids? How did the tone of the fanfic change while the 10th Doctor was in the midst of his downward spiral of manpain?
There's lot we can do with these pages, both Old School Who fans and New Who fans alike, so let's play with this for a couple of weeks. Pick an area that strikes your fancy and have at it! :)
April 20, 2010
Just a quick note to say that we've added a few requested categories — Doujinshi, Characters, Pairings, and Zine Publishers — and updated the respective templates with these categories. Meanwhile, the "Fan Docos" category has been replaced with "Fan Documentaries" by request. The policy on fandom categories is forthcoming.
April 16, 2010
Last month one of our members had to step down for RL work reasons. We're pleased to announce that Aethel has joined the wiki committee to fill the vacancy.
We're delighted to have her!
March 20, 2010
We've posted the Fandoms as Category policy change to the policies section of Fanlore. We'd like to open it up for comment. You can find it here.
We, the wiki committee, don't work in a vacuum and would like your input on this. If possible, We'd like to have the discussion here on Dreamwidth. The entry for that is here. It's easy to answer questions and respond to comments. If discussion becomes unwieldy, we can schedule a chat in the Fanlore chat room.
This is only the first of several policies we're working on and are planning to put out for comment in the next few months. So, let us know what you think.
March 14, 2010
A quick note to let everyone know that the Sphinx search engine has been installed at Fanlore and is ready for use.
If you have any issues send a message to the wiki committee at wiki [at] transformativeworks [dot] org.
Thanks to everyone who helped out with the testing! We appreciate it!
March 10, 2010
Fanlore will be down on Sunday 3/14/2010 from 3:00pm Eastern Standard Time (UTC -5) to 4:00pm EST to install and test the Spinx search engine extension.
The wiki committee will be testing it after the install, basically just running a few searches. If anyone is around and wants to help out, you can join us in the Fanlore chat room at about 3:30pm EST to run a few searches and make sure that everything works right.
March 4, 2010
We've now topped 100,000 edits! *\o/*
February 27, 2010
Wiki Committee Monthly Report
The Wiki Committee is mostly new this year. Our Chair, Meri, is our only member who served the entirety of last year. Christy joined last summer and Cin1607, Cordelia_v, and Evelyn Brown are entirely new. We've had a very busy first month!
We've asked Systems to install the Sphinx search engine, as our research has shown that it's the best system available to us now. We are currently working on developing a test plan to test the search engine once it's been installed.
A draft of the "Major Fandoms as Categories" policy has been completed and is ready for Board review, and we've also drafted a policy on images posted to Fanlore (focusing particularly on the question of copyrighted images and explicit images) and this draft has been sent to Legal and the Board for approval.
We're attempting to post regular themes or challenges on the Dreamwidth Fanlore community to encourage and focus participation. Some of these have been more successful than others, but we'll keep working on it, so bear with us.
February 15, 2010
We've hit 10,000 articles!!! And we're sneaking up on 100,000 edits, so that's the new number to watch. *\o/*
February 11, 2010
We posted a new challenge on the Fanlore community at Dreamwidth last night. Since this one will run through Valentine's Day, we're focusing on love, or more specifically, those phrases or gestures from our emotionally stunted OTPs that have become the accepted shorthand for "I love you."
So what is it that you see, in canon or fanon, that makes your heart melt over how obviously in love your favorite pairing is, even if they're not able to admit it? What's that thing that your fandom points out to new people, saying, "See? That thing they did? So. In. Love." Now go to their pairing page and see if it's described, and if not, stick a paragraph in there explaining it. And if your OTP doesn't have its own page, make one!
February 4, 2010
We posted a challenge on the Fanlore community at Dreamwidth last night to build on to the Newsletter stub on the wiki and also to create as many proper pages for the Newsletter Communities on the subpage as possible. Most of the fandom newsletters listed there only have an external link to their actual site, and we want to be sure their stories are preserved on Fanlore. There are over 100 fandoms and their newsletters listed. Let's see how many pages we can create in a week!
December 19, 2009
Update from the Wiki Committee:
We’ve had a few question recently about with our fair use policies and we worked with Legal to resolve them. We’ve been testing a search function extension that will make it much easier to search the wiki. It’s still in test right, but we hope to have it out soon. We’re also writing a new policy out that will make major fandoms a category by themselves. And we’ve added 2 volunteers to work on documentation. Look for all of this to be done early next year.
November 4, 2009
Fanlore suffered some downtime last night from approximately 10:38pm PST to 02:35am PST. The root cause was a maintenance problem. We're back up and running now.
August 5, 2009
Systems has moved the wiki to its new home on the Zen webserver. Most users will hopefully notice no interruption, but some users may encounter a note redirecting to them to fanlore's new IP address. This is temporary, we apologize for any inconvenience.
July 12, 2009
Christy Corr is the newest member of the wiki committee. She'll bring her experience with the Unknowable Room Harry Potter wiki to the committee, along with it's archive and her insight into some of the history of Harry Potter fandom. Welcome, Christy!
June 26, 2009
Fanlore has added Bug Tracking to the site. You can go ahead and add issues, plus check to see the status on any outstanding items that have already been logged and are in-process.
May 3, 2009
Fanlore has a new social networking community at Dreamwidth, fanlore, where you can ask questions, receive updates, or just hang out with other editors and the fanlore committee. You can comment there using an OpenID (like the one provided by livejournal and other sites) or a Dreamwidth account. The account is also syndicated to to livejournal, at dw_fanlore, or you can track the community using its rss feed.