|Synonyms:||illustration, drawing, illo|
|See also:||Art Show, Zine Art, Fan Comic, Icon, Manip, Chibi, Landscape, Still Life, Model Building, Fanart Challenges, Fillo, History of Fanart, Portrait|
|Click here for related articles on Fanlore.|
Previously, a fanartist was anyone who drew for a genre because they were a fan of the genre rather than a professional employed to create art for the genre. In the earlier fandom years artists like Wendy (Fletcher) Pini, who produced amateur original fantasy art for fanzines, would be deemed a "fanartist" because she produced art for a genre she was a fan of. While a fanartist could make fanart for any genre, generally the most common were the science fiction and fantasy genres.
However, in modern usage, the word "fanart" means any amateur art for a specific TV show, movie, book, or other media event not owned or created by the artist. Original genre art is generally no longer considered "fanart."
Technically, the term "fanart" encompasses art in every medium just as the word "art" does, including but not limited to drawing, painting, sculpture, photography, photo manipulation, videos, crafts, textiles, metal smithing, and fashion. Within these broad media types, fanart has also created types of art almost specific to itself, such as icons.
Colloquially, fanart most commonly refers to the art for a series that is drawn or painted either traditionally or digitally. However, colloquial use can also be dependent on the fandom. For example, in a fandom where photo manipulation is the dominant form of art, "fanart" for the fandom often implies "photo manipulation" not traditional art. Some fandoms refuse to consider icons or banners as "fanart."
Fanart as Its Own Story
Sometimes it's the art that tells the story, rather than the other way around:
This summer, when I was at Shore Leave, I was strolling through the dealer's room and thumbing through a stack of 'zines. Most of them were slash 'zines - G/B, a bunch of K/S, some from other fandoms (Chips? heaven help me <G>). I'm not a slash fan, so I didn't pay much attention, until I came across this one cover...oh, *man*. It was for a K/S 'zine (don't ask me what it was, all I saw was the cover art, which blinded me for about 3 hours afterward). Words fail to do it justice, but I'll try: Kirk and Spock, obviously, both shirtless, Spock is standing behind Kirk. Spock has one arm wrapped around Kirk's upper chest and is doing god-knows-what to his ear. Both their eyes are closed in what I can only describe as bliss. Y'all, I don't read TOS, and I don't read slash without a *really* good reason, but that one illustration, in just one 2-second glance, told a story far better and far more poignantly than anything I've come across in verbal format. And it damn near converted me to K/S on the spot. Whoever drew that
illustration obviously put just as much loving tenderness and hard work into his/her 'visual fiction' as I've put into any of my 'verbal; fictions'. Using pictures rather than words, a story was told, and this unwary viewer was moved to heart palpitations :-)So, yes, I am a vocal and passionate supporter of artwork in 'zines. Illustrations that accompany stories can enhance the inherent visual content within the stories, but I also think they tell their own stories. Whether it's verbal or visual, to me it's just another form of storytelling. 
Another fan writes that art for a story can make all the difference:
For me, art can make or break a piece of fiction (make a fair story good or a good story terrific, or severely diminish the impact of a well-written work). Okay, I admit it, I'm a child of the TV tube. But from my perspective, art is never simply "embellishment." 
History of Fanart
- Main article: History of Fanart
In the USA and other Western countries fanart in the modern sense of the word dates to at least the 60s and 70s, if not earlier. It was especially prevalent in the Star Trek and Star Wars fandoms. Other TV shows, such as Starsky & Hutch, The Professionals, Beauty and the Beast, and other 80s and early 90s TV series (and some movies) had a noticeable fanart presence. Fanart was also created for highly popular books like The Lord of the Rings.
When media fandom moved online, it was mostly fanfiction that developed an online presence. The split between fanart and fanfiction that occurred when western, live-action media fandoms, moved to the net gave some fans, who first encountered these fandoms online, the impression that in the English-speaking world fanart lagged behind fanfiction in general, although it was only true for online media fandom where fanart was not as prevalent as fanfiction.
In contrast, many Asian countries, notably Japan, had a highly visible fanart culture, most notably in the form of small fan comics called doujinshi. Anime series of the 80s and 90s that had a considerable doujinshi following in Japan included Samurai Troopers, Saint Seiya, Sailor Moon, Fushigi Yuugi, and others. Doujinshi was also produced for western television shows such as Star Trek: The Next Generation and The A-Team. Often the characters were drawn in a more "Traditional" manga style and there was little attempt made toward the more portrait realism seen in western fanart for these series.
In the early and mid 90's Japanese cartoons increased in popularity in the USA and fanart began to be created for these shows. These fandoms did not have an expectation of a 'realistic' portrayal of characters, which may help explain why fanart began to be not only drawn more often, but drawn by younger fandom members, especially teens and pre-teens. This is not to say the teenagers had not previously drawn fanart, but there was a noticeable increase in fanartist numbers in this age bracket.
The first time anime fandom and western media fandom met was in Star Wars: The Phantom Menace, which was the fandom that swallowed all of (media slash) fandom before Harry Potter became big, and The Phantom Menace fanart documents this meeting of different styles and traditions. With the rise of Harry Potter fandom and fanartists moving from the anime and Harry Potter fandoms into other fandoms, fanart became increasingly visible again in both older and newer TV, movie, and book fandoms. Giving these "live action" characters a more 'cartoon' look became more accepted among fans.
Currently, fanart is a highly visible and popular part of many fandoms across the genres. It is still most noticeable in anime and Harry Potter fandoms. However, it is also seen in a diverse range of fandoms including Stargate SG-1, Stargate Atlantis, Supernatural, Merlin, Marvel comics, and other popular TV series, books, comics, and movies.
Recently, newer online posting formats such as Big Bangs and Reverse Bangs (akin to Big Bangs but with the artwork created first and inspiring the fic) show a return to the old zine tradition of collaboration between artists and writers.
Types of Fanart
Drawings and Paintings
Fanart that has been drawn or painted is broken down further into two groups. Traditional art, meaning the art was primarily drawn or painted with material such as paint, markers, color pencil or other physical media, and digital art, meaning the art was primarily created using one of the many computer art programs such as Open Canvas, Photoshop or Painter. 3D rendering programs can also be used to create fanart, in the past most often technical fanart, such as spaceship designs but modern 3D art has technology has fewer limitations, even on personal computers. (See also machinima.)
This is the oldest form of fanart, pre-dating the modern use of the word, and stretching back to at least the fanzine and fan publications of the 1930's. Initially most fanart of this type was black and white due to the limitations of publishing fan publications, but with the advent of cheaper color printing methods and cheaper distribution methods, notably the internet, color illustrations and paintings are now seen more often than black and white illustrations.
Fanart of this type is most often illustrative. So the most visible influences are illustration traditions and styles rather than from fine art, and fanart only relatively rarely branches into art styles such as abstract art, especially if it is non-representational abstraction, surrealism, impressionism, or some other modern art styles. However, modern graphic art and design are an influence more often, for example in minimalist fanart poster and cover design. 
Cartooning is another common form of abstraction and in recent years, cartooning has become more accepted in previously photorealistic-dominated fandoms, such as those relating to TV shows like Star Trek. Chibi art and icons are another type of cartoon-related fanart, and have become quite common even in Western media fandoms. In most fandoms character portraits and illustrations of scenes with characters are more common than still lifes or landscapes.
Generally, traditional and digital drawings and paintings tend to dominate the various anime fandoms as well as novel-based fandoms, most notably Harry Potter.
Photo manipulation refers to any image that has been digitally manipulated (through combining images, warping, recoloring, repositioning, resizing, etc.) in order to achieve the artist's desired effect in a new end product. The fandom term for this art is usually photomanips or simply manips. This artistic medium also includes icons (small images digitally manipulated and used for blogs such as Livejournal), banners (often seen as decorations for blogs and other online spaces), and computer wallpapers. Icons and banners tend to be almost exclusive to the arena of fanart, while wallpapers may still be either original- or fanart-based.
As with painting and drawing, photo manipulation fanart tends to be more illustrative than abstract, with emphases put on creating realistic blends of diverse photo elements.
This is a newer form of fanart that has become more prevalent with the availability of computer graphics programs that allow artists to manipulate photos in many ways; such as cutting out characters from the background of one image and adding them to another, changing light and color of certain image elements, resizing entire areas, or creating an entirely new scene with elements extracted from a multitude of other images. Because the beginning manipper tends to start with easy-to-learn cut and paste techniques, their fanart may be easily recognized as manipulations, and can be unintentionally comical or even grotesque. This has led to a backlash against this fanart media from some fanart circles, similar in nature to the backlash against photography that occurred in artistic circles. Detractors often point to the simple techniques used by beginning manippers as evidence that manips are "simply cut-and-paste collages" or "simple recolorings of pre-existing photos" and, therefore, should not be considered art.
Whether manips, icons, wallpapers, or graphics should be considered "fanart" continues to be debated among fans.  Another topic of debate is the whether manips cross a line into RPF and RPS. One fan in 2001 writes: "I have... seen some really explicit shots where the very recognisable actors' heads have been superimposed on bodies in very, very explicit poses. This really is beginning to worry me, as it seems an extension of actor slash. Somehow artwork never seems so bad, as it is obviously a work of imagination and creation... The dividing line seemed so much clearer. What do others think, especially given that the photo manipulations could be picked up by outsiders? Is it fair to the actors?" 
At this time, there is no common consensus and some art archives, notably the Harry Potter Archive Artistic Alley allow fanart of this type to be posted. On the other hand, the art archive deviantArt, for copyright reasons, has taken an official stance against such art, unless it can be proven that there is no copyright conflict.
For more, see Manip.
"3D" (or Three Dimensional) Art is a rarity in fandom. While dioramas do exist, combining drawn fan art with craft-style methods is even rarer. An exception is Laura Quiles "Star Wars:30 Years" art piece that offers three different views of Star Wars characters depending on where the viewer is positioned. The "Light Side" of the Force, the "Dark Side" of the Force and the combined straight on view. It won multiple awards at the 2007 MediaWest art show, including 'Best In Show,' 'Best SF,' and 'Best 3D."
Laura Quiles 3D art piece: "Star Wars: 30 Years." Full on view. Winner of multiple Art Show Awards at MediaWest 2007
Crafts, Textiles, and Metal Smithing
Fannish crafts are very diverse: They can be dioramas recreating canon (or fanfic) scenes, model building, sculptures and dolls of characters, especially if there is no official merchandise such as in Calvin and Hobbes fandom, mobiles , even silicone sextoys, and of course all kinds of textile arts, such as cross-stitch and fannish knitting.
An 10" x 8" cross stitched representation of a small section of the Atlantis Gate Room main window from a pattern designed by the stitcher
Sculpture is not a very common fannish activity. Still, there are a few examples of this form of art.
from the 1982 MediaWest program book, some busts for sale
Allistair Gourlay is the artist; this bust of Spock won a prize in 1985 at Sol III
Photography is not commonly used as fanart in and of itself. In order to be fanart, the photograph is usually related to either Photo manipulation or fandom specific costumes and is therefore more apart of those categories than fanart media in its own right. However, many fanartists find photographs and photography to be a valuable art tool.
- Creating costumes based on TV Shows, movies and cartoons is often termed "Cosplay" among fandom members. This form of fashion fanart tends to be especially prevalent among both anime- and sci-fi fandoms. Usually costumes are made to be worn at fandom specific conventions. Of the various fanart types, this is one of the least controversial when bought and sold. Typically, a studio will issue a Cease and Desist if a person is selling an unauthorized replica that is felt to be too exact.
- Some fans create fashion items to wear such as sweatshirts, vests, sweaters, t-shirts and hats.
There are many different kinds of fan videos.
- Vids are short videos composed of scenes taken from a movie or TV show and set to music. Vidding started in 1975, but really took off as an art form in the early 1980s with the rise of the home VCR. Fan videos were often shown as part of themed conventions; the other way to get vids was to send away in the mail for videocassettes. Vids were made with VCRs through the 1990s and into the 2000s, but recently advances in computer technology have resulted in an explosion of vids. Distribution has gotten easier as well; password-protected download sites have given way to more open modes of file distribution, and streaming sites like youtube and imeem are popular. Vids are less common among book-based fandoms; however, occasionally a fan vid will put fanart to music.
- Anime Music Videos, are similar in format to vids, but evolved as a separate tradition. AMV footage is most often taken from anime or game cut-scenes, but may be constructed with stills or fanart.
- Machinima videos are rendered in real-time by game engines.
- Fan films are videos in which the artist is actually creating footage to tell a story; in certain fandoms, notably the Star Trek ToS fandom, actual fan-made TV episodes have been produced and put online.
- Multimedia art is now becoming popular; examples include credit sequences, trailers, animated visual art , and multimedia-enriched fan fiction (fan fiction that integrates words, pictures, music, and video).
Of all the fanart forms, fan videos, especially the ones composed of video clips set to music, have met with the most resistance from copyright holders. Viacom especially has taken exception to this fanart form, and as a result, streaming sites have taken vids down for violating copyright. However, not all media companies have taken this stance; e.g. the makers of Forever Knight included three vids by Kristin Harris as bonus materials on their Season 3 DVD release.
Fan comics have typically been more prevalent in Asia (as doujinshi) than in the USA; however, they are increasing in popularity each year. Typically a fan comic run is a limited run, often with only around 50 issues produced. This is to help avoid copyright conflict with the owner of the material the fan comic is based upon.
In live action fandoms fan comics are not always drawn, but are sometimes photo comics made from rearranged and cropped screencaps combined with text and speech balloons. These are usually published on the web, not as print comics. The same is often true for drawn fan comics in these fandoms, although they can have the same format and layout as print comics. Online comics in live action fandoms often tell their story on a single page and parodies rarely need more than one panel. Some live action fandoms have produced online comic strips that ran for several years.
Another fan notes that some ST artists were getting high prices from the sale of their art for fanfic when sold at conventions:Artwork! Am I the only person to think it's a tad unfair that fan artists make a packet out of their illos, while writers don't earn anything? Not that I'm in fandom to become stinking rich, I hasten to add! 
Another fan writes of what she felt to be a double-standard and how that propelled her to write a zine:[It seems] unfair and frankly quite discouraging that a good fan artist can make excellent money for his efforts and an equally good fan writer who sweats just as hard and long over a story gets nothing." 
One fan writes a letter about what she has heard about another zine, Energize!:Okay, I'll try to explain how this story came about. I suppose it's a lesson on the pitfalls of being a smartass. A long time ago (the spring of 1986), at IDICon in Houston, I thought it would be cute and clever to put a piece of art in the artshow. My artistic abilities are nonexistent, so this seemed an amusing way to make a point about inequity in fandom. So I drew two stick figures on a piece of typing paper, matted and entered it in the artshow under the title "Sour Grapes." Attached was a little note explaining that, as a writer, I could not legally sell my fan stories outright, but if anyone saw the deep, underlying passion and romance in the above illo, I might feel compelled to write them a short story. 
Some fans argue that the reason fanart has more perceived 'value' than fan writing (and therefore is a skill that can be sold) is that many fans do not see themselves as capable of doing fanart:Sure, it's a good zine, but I'd like to put in an anti-plug. The zine has a beautiful Kraith portfolio by Connie Faddis which all by itself make it worth buying. However, contrary to the usual fannish practice of returning the work to the artist (and a highly commendalbe one it is, too) [name redacted], didn't return Connie's originals. In fact, she even refused to answer letters about it, apparently feeling that they had become her property. Rumor has it (and this is only rumor) that she may have even destroyed the originals. Now, if nothing else, Connie could have sold those for a good deal of money, and she should certainly have the right to reprint the art as she desires. But [name redacted] printed her zine for one reason -- to make money, and having [the art] reprinted might cut down on her profits. 
Others disagree. In this excerpt from a discussion in early 1993, one fan says we should not confuse respect with the ability to charge money for fanworks:"There is much more value placed on jobs that we (personally) don't know how to do, than there is on jobs that we imagine we could step in and handle easily. The most common place this shows up in fandom is in the writer/ artist dichotomy. People put artists on pedestals, pay zillions of dollars for [prints] (essentially) xerox copies of their work, and very few people (myself included) see any problem with this. On the other hand, people think (and I have heard this said) "Well, anyone can write. That's not so special." Therefore, writers get only a trib copy for their story (in most cases), and not lot of respect.
"It is true that most fans have a least started one story, and most fans haven't tried to draw T'Binky (ask me later) but I don't think the line between artists and writers is that clear cut. For one thing, really only the top couple of tiers of artists get that much respect. In media, that's Suzie, and Marty S. and Jean Kluge and Caren Parnes, maybe a couple of others on the top tier, and maybe 10 or so on the next tier, and that's all of media fandom. (since most 'slash' art is actually just redrawings of photos, and few of our boys have ever posed in the right way, artists don't have to be slash artists to make money from slash fans--but that's another discussion altogether). I think the top writers, M.Fae, Pam Rose, both lezlies, O Yardley, Ann & Leah, Melody, H.G., Meg Lewtan, people both prolific and good who write in big fandoms, get a comparable respect. (Not comparable money--but that's like saying, why is it easier to spend $400's on a couch that is just some padding over wood, and probably took a couple of days to make, than it is to pay $400 for a software program that took months if not years to develop. Why, because it is too damn easy to copy, as much as anything.)"
Whether a fanart sale is accepted within a fandom usually depends on the question if the artist is acting within the bounds of acceptable fan behavior, or violating them. What is deemed "acceptable" can vary from fandom to fandom.  However, even pro-sale fans were shocked when Suzan Lovett sold her Starsky & Hutch art from the zine Timeless for $3,000 at the Zebracon art auction in 2003.The same discussions about different standards for art and fic continue into the present. This fandom secret from 2009 reads
"I hate that it's okay for fan artists to sell their art at anime conventions, or do commissions, but it's not okay for fan authors to do the same thing. Even selling it at cost is some sort of horrible taboo. Why the double standard fandom? Haven't fanfic writers worked just as hard as the fan artists? Is it because fan art is just more visually pleasing? Why is it okay for fan artists to sell art of characters they don't own, but it's not okay for fan authors to use characters and worlds that aren't their own and sell it. I'm not talking about publishing a fanfiction novel, just creating nice booklets to sell at conventions or online to those who want them. I think there are plenty of people who would like to have real copies of good fanfiction. Secret because I don't need the wank and drama voicing this opinion would bring me"
In the artistic community, fanart is often not seen as a legitimate form of artistic expression. This has led some fanartists to feel resentful of the art world.
The argument against fanart made by some artists, as well as from some other fans, is that the artwork is derivative and not original. Therefore, it does not show as much individuality and artist sensibilities as original artwork would.
The counter claim by fanartists is that fanart often contains an original expression and original idea by the artist even if the specific subject matter is not original and is no more derivative than, for example, artwork based on the Bible, on mythology, or historical events and people. They claim the negative bias is based more on the subject of their art than any artistic principles.
Some fan artists, at least in the past, felt that their art was treated in an inferior manner compared to fiction by zine eds, and as a result, also by fans. There is an essay titled "The Starving Artist Syndrome" by an uncredited author in Spectrum #33 (1977):
For some reason, artists in fandom do not have the status fanfic writers have. Treklit is the main staple of the Star Trek genzine and thus, a proportional amount of honor is paid to the authors in terms of kudos, notoriety, and rank... Artists have never quite figured in at the top of the status chart since art is usually secondary in a fanzine, sad to say, rather than working hand in hand..." She goes on to list of how fandom's artists are badly treated; poor printing of their work in zines, original artwork not returned to the artists, art published without permission in other places such as shirts and such, zine eds who use whiteout and other editing procedures on art... She recommends that fan artists band together and require that an informal contract between zine eds and artists be drawn up. "Although the contract idea does not solve all of the problems of art/artist abuse and handling of art, it does offer artists a defense against flagrant indifference on the part of faneds who never had any reason to give a damn one way or another...
Another fan sees an opposite problem, that of artists being treated "better" than writers due to the fact that their work is rarely "edited":
Remember that with a zine, an editor will often ask for changes to be made to stories submitted; that is not often done with artwork. I refuse to accept the latter as something sacred that must be included whatever its shortcomings. 
Fanart is not often the subject of legal controversy; however, it can be considered a form of copyright infringement, especially when sold. A copyright owner will often overlook small, one-time shows such as conventions. However, in 2006, Otakon attempted to ban fanart from the Artist Alley, which was the first major convention move against the selling of fanart.
Such legal cases are still the exception rather than the rule; however, they serve as a reminder that the fanart is not necessarily the legal property of the fanartist and that copyright law and fair use and transformative defenses vary from country to country.
Still, more policing of fanart tends to be done by the fandom itself than by the property owners themselves.
Notable Fanart Shows and Auctions
- Yuletart (external link)
- Deviantart (external link)
- Sheezyart (external link)
- Artisticalley (external link)
- Fanart: A guide to terminology by littlewolfstar
- What is Fan Art? by sockii
- Laura’s post in the alt.startrek.creative thread Fanzines and the Internet or Economy Outside dated 8 November 1998, accessed 17 June 2012
- from Not Tonight Spock! #11 (1985)
- WOLF 359, an archive and resource for SF 3D fanart, last updated 1997, accessed 21 Feb 2010
- Gnatkip. The Dragon, a HP fanart inspired by Pablo Picasso's Le Taureau series, created for the HP Fringeart imitation challenge. (accessed 20 Feb 2010). WebCite.
- Gnatkip. Dementoid, an abstract Harry Potter fanart in the style of Jackson Pollock's drip paintings, created for the HP Fringeart imitation challenge. (accessed 20 Feb 2010). WebCite.
- Example for a surrealist Snape/Harry piece by Froggie NSFW (accessed 12 Dec 2009). WebCite.
- Gnatkip. Sunday Afternoon on the Grounds of Hogwarts School, example for a pointillist Harry Potter fanart in the style of Seurat, created for the HP Fringeart imitation challenge. (accessed 20 Feb 2010). WebCite.
- minimalist TV series posters (accessed 21 Feb 2010)
- minimalist Star Wars posters (accessed 21 Feb 2010)
- tv/movie book cover designs(accessed 21 Feb 2010). WebCite.
- Glockgal. The WHAT IS FANART Poll. Posted 28 May 2007. (Accessed 3 October 2008). WebCite
- Beet. Fan art and Manipping. Posted 4 June 2007. (Accessed 3 October 2008). WebCite.
- from Discovered in a Letterbox #18
- Media fandom has a long history of art shows at conventions that pre-dates the internet.
- Laurelwood. A Quiet Evening at Home, a diorama showing Snape and Wormtail at Spinner's End. (accessed 20 Feb 2010). WebCites: artist notes and Diorama.
- Gnatkip. HP Art: Diorama: Classroom Eleven, a diorama of Firenze's Divination classroom (accessed 20 Feb 2010). WebCite.
- Tofty. Snape diorama (accessed 20 Feb 2010). WebCite.
- lymanalpha. various NSFW Star Trek sculptures in progress
- Several Calvin and Hobbes sculptures (accessed 20 Feb 2010). WebCite.
- Astridv. Stargate Atlantis: The Mobile. (accessed 20 Feb 2010). WebCite.
- Naked Bee. Batman's Utility Belt. (accessed 20 Feb 2010). WebCites: Journal post and Gallery
- Dalek Propaganda by Shae (accessed 1 June 2010). WebCite.
- Firefly Crew Sculptures on TervorGrove's DeviantArt page. accessed June 3, 2012.
- Grrrindhouse, by Danegen
- Distance, Long by Bingeling and Dogeared, and The Tree by Newkidfan
- Missed the Saturday Dance by Zoetrope
- Chrome-Magnon. Artwork by Astrid, story by Shannon Fisher. This X-Files example from the 90's is a 30-page online comic book. (Accessed October 13 2008).
- Example: Stargate SG-1 Cartoons by Leah Rosenthal. (Accessed October 13 2008). WebCite.
- The Xena fan comic Battle On! by Jeanette Atwood ran from 1997 to 2000 and Little Xena and Little Gabrielle by Lucia Nobrega ran from 1999 to 2006. (Accessed 13 October 2008). WebCite and WebCite.
- from Discovered in a Letterbox #19
- from Interstat #22 (August 1979)
- from the author's preface of Arabian Nights
- a dust-up in the pages of Warped Space #21
- Megan Kent's post to the Virgule-L mailing list dated Feb 18, 1993, quoted with permission.
- Sandy Herrold's response to [Megan Kent]]'s statement, also posted to the Virgule-L mailing list, dated Feb 19, 1993, quoted with permission.
- An example for a post with a poll about the different opinions and some discussion of these positions in the comments is here: Miriam Heddy. Show Me The Money (a poll). Posted 23 July 2008. (Accessed 3 October 2008), now offline.
- fandomsecrets. Posted July 7th, 2009. (Accessed August 10, 2011.). WebCite.
- 28.5.2011, ANNOUNCEMENT: REGARDING THE SELLING OF MSPA STUFF by Lexxy, post explaining the new rules with quotes from Andrew, accessed 3.11.2011
- from The Hatstand Express #14 (1987) </li>
- Otakon Enforces Copyright at Artists' Alley. WebCte. </li>
- Regulating the Fringe: Waisetsu (Obscenity) Rules Doujinshi? (now offline) </li></ol>