The Rack

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Star Trek Fanfiction
Title: The Rack
Author(s): J. Emily Vance -- pseudonym for Nancy Kippax, Beverly Volker and April Valentine
Date(s): 1977
Length:
Genre:
Fandom: Star Trek: The Original Series
External Links:
art for this story from Contact, the artist is Alice Jones

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The Rack was a Star Trek: The Original Series fan fiction story by J. Emily Vance (a pseudonym for Nancy Kippax, Beverly Volker and April Valentine) published in Contact issue 4 in 1977. Art has been included on Fanlore with the permission of the publisher or the publisher's heirs.

In the story, Starfleet Command suspects Kirk and Spock of having an affair, and court-martials them. At the end of the story, Kirk attempts suicide.

This story was later reprinted in a collected volume along with its sequel. See The Rack & All the King's Horses, All the King's Men.

A K/S Response

According to Joan Verba, the novel-length story was a response to K/S -- the authors wrote the story to show what, in their opinion, would "really" happen if Starfleet suspected, even erroneously, that Kirk and Spock were having an affair.[1]

"[The story] created quite a stir, for its premise, its characterization, and its ending. The story prompted sequels--both their own ("All the King's Horses, All the King's Men") and unauthorized ones by other fans.

As explained in the editorial for the later collected volume, the story was written "to show the danger of rumor--whatever the reason, of bigotry and personal prejudices, especially if they occur in places of authority [2]

From Nancy Kippax:
Between 1977 and 1979, we wrote "The Rack" and its sequel, "All the King's Horses, All the King's Men", plus "Home is the Hunter." Powerful stories, y'all. We published Contact III in March 1977 and Contact IV (with "The Rack") in September 1977.

The Rack", as is widely known by now, was conceived as a cautionary tale to anonymously respond to the growing acceptance of the original "slash" relationship between Kirk and Spock. Bev and I, along with [April Valentine] in Baltimore, were more concerned with what this runaway concept was doing to the Star Trek fandom than to making a social or political statement. Whispers of K/S had been around from the time that we arrived in fandom, and by 1977 the furtive whispers had bloomed into a bold shout of acceptance all over the country. And that shout was causing repercussions that was alienating people in groups from Maine to California. Some felt you were either for it or against it, period.

Bev and I conceived the idea for "The Rack" and quickly realized it was too large a project for us alone, so we asked [April Valentine] to join us for a unique three-way writing experience that was both fun and challenging. We decided early on to write it under a pseudonym, not to hide from the brickbats we suspected it would provoke, but simply because we were all too well known to be judged without prejudice or preconceived notion. Hence, in May 1977 while hip-deep in writing the novella, J. Emily Vance was "born". And over that winter (1977-1978), we completed the sequel, which was printed in the zine, Farthest Star, published by New York fan, Pat N. [3]

Reactions and Reviews to the Content of the Story Itself

Famous get-'em story in which Kirk and Spock are not lovers, but are rumored to be so. After Spock refuses a direct order to abandon a landing party headed by Kirk, and instead follows his own better judgment to successfully rescue them, Starfleet brass hound the men into separation "for the good of the service." Kirk is physically and psychologically weakened from an accident while all this is going on. Lots of angst and hurt/comfort between the two as they wrestle with the situation and eventually capitulate to Starfleet. As Spock is about to leave for his new assignment, he finds Kirk dead of an overdose of sleeping pills - whether accidental or deliberate is uncertain. [4]
You're going to suffer through Vance's "The Rack", but I'm betting you'll hate every minute. The Alice Jones art will rip your heart out, but the story .... the premise is that Kirk and Spock are not lovers, but Starfleet thinks they are, and proceeds to hound them to death over it. The prose is often technically brilliant, pacing, style, all are excellent, the scene where Spock is the recipient of a heavy cruise at a party (and poor baby, he's so innocent) is easily one of the better things I've read in fanfic, and the story is consistent within itself, but as I've said elsewhere, it couldn't be like this folks. Trekfic probably needed an anti-K/S story, for balance is nothing else, and I could suspend my disbelief of this one if Kirk had at least been Kirk. But James T. is a shaper of events, he doesn't wallow behind in their wake, reacting his way along instead of taking action. In spite of this, no ... maybe because of it, Contact 4 is the zine to read this year; if you like studies of the relationship between Kirk and Spock, don't miss it. [5]
Perhaps the best known story of this type is THE RACK, by J. Emily Vance, which deals with a very controversial subject -- Kirk and Spock are accused of being homosexual lovers by Starfleet, and must deal with these charges realistically and immediately. Though these charges are not true, Kirk and Spock must attempt to convince Starfleet of their innocence, or become separated by Spock being transferred to another ship, and given a command of his own. Not to give any of the plot away, you can believe me that the tortures these two go through are more than any agony any two people should be called on to bear in a lifetime. Though there is some dissent as to whether or not Starfleet would drum up such charges, or even if they would care if Kirk and Spock were lovers, the idea itself works well within the framework given. THE RACK appears in CONTACT 4, a zine which deals with the brotherhood aspect (not physical love) of the K/S relationship. Even if K/S does not interest you in the slightest, THE RACK is one story which should be considered. The charges are trumped up by Starfleet (for god-only-knows-what-reason), and are not true. On a scale of 1 to 10, THE RACK would have to rate somewhere in the range of 15, simply due to the emotional and psychological studies we are given of Kirk, Spock and McCoy. This is one of the best written, and best illustrated stories I have ever had the privilege of reading, and I would recommend it to anyone in Star Trek fandom. The sequel to THE RACK, entitled ALL THE KING'S HORSES, ALL THE KING'S MEN is in the FARTHEST STAR, a new fanzine, and deals with the continuing tragedy as seen from McCoy's point of view. ALL THE KING'S HORSES deals more with what too much power in the hands of the wrong people can lead to, and beautifully illustrates "victory in the face of tragedy" when it is already too late for many of the people originally involved. [6]
This zine is devoted to one question: if Kirk and Spock were unjustly accused of being homosexual lovers by Starfleet? This is a good story, and would be an even better one if the characters didn't seem so out-of-focus. In the first story, "The Rack", Kirk and Spock are accused of being lovers and are tried in what amounts to little more than a kangaroo court. They are seperated, and Spock is re-assigned to a ship in another part of the galaxy. The ending is a cliffhanger which paves the way for "All the King's Horses, All the King's Men". When Kirk is found dead, from an overdose of sleeping pills (accidental? It is never determined), Spock goes into a coma from which he does not emerge. After keeping him alive artificially for several months, McCoy disconnects his life-support machinery when he is forced to realize that the situation is hopeless. McCoy then becomes a derelict (totally out of character, as far as I'm concerned) and ends up drifting from place to place. Many years later, now ill and homeless/he is given shelter by two other members of Starfleet, who remind him of Kirk and Spock. When it develops that they are having similar trouble, McCoy encourages them to fight for their rights. Eventually, the Kirk/Spock case is reopened, and they are exonerated - unfortunately, too late to do either of them any personal good. As I said before, this is a well-written zine, and would have been an excellent one if the characters had behaved the way they usually do, rather than letting events overwhelm them. A third short story, "Oh God!", and some excellent poetry and artwork round out this zine. In case anyone is interested, "J. Emily Vance" is a pseudonym for Beverly Volker, Nancy Kippax and April Valentine. [7]
...The handling of the "charge" of this ((K/S homosexuality)) between Kirk and Spock in the story THE RACK, was handled beautifully. You could see "some people" reading that into the K/S rela tionship, especially the way the evidence was presented from ship tapes and reports. All handled beautifully, but did not like the ending. Even though emotionally and physically injured, I believe that Kirk would not have committed suicide. He would have been "crushed" and found it tremendously difficult to go on without Spock, but I believe he would have - or quite possibly, taken a stand and fought. Of course an allegation like that, even if won, would hang over their heads, because there would be someone, somewhere, who would believe it and not let the thing die. Still don't believe Kirk would have committed suicide. Even if I don't agree with the ending, it was an excellent story - really got wrapped up in it. [8]
...THE RACK needed a complete rewrite to eliminate the masochist overtones. Killing of the Captain is no way to end any Star Trek story. ...It's not easy to mentally construct a sequel to those horrid endings like THE RACK'S to resurrect their victims from the dead. It's the only way to live with that kind of story. I speculated that Spock ran from the scene, resigned in a rage (even Vulcans get angry!) and disappeared temporarily, not knowing that McCoy arrived to find a spark of life in the Captain and managed to save him. The pain Kirk was in was more physical than mental, lesions on the main nerves leading to the brain causing the agony, a result of the injuries mentioned in the story. Ah, hah, the doctor permits Starfleet to believe Kirk dead and spirits their victim away. The Captain is suffering from amnesia, a result of all that has happened to him and must be retrained... The perpetrators of the rumor that so damaged him and Spock made the error of celebrating and are found out. The wrath of Starfleet falls upon them. Meanwhile the doctor has taken Kirk to Vulcan where he hopes that Sarek will be able to help. They are joined by Scott and the rest, who know that the Captain is alive but have resigned Starfleet anyway. Spock eventually arrives home.- His joy to find Kirk alive tempered by his Captain's nonrecognition of him. Starfleet meanwhile finds itself in a situation that requires men like Spock and the rest and sends a mediator to Vulcan. Suspicion that McCoy has tricked them is verified when the mediator meets the Captain face to face. What is Starfleet's reaction, will Kirk recover, will he and the others return to Starfleet?... [9]
...Who is. J. Emily Vance?... She has, in one story, written both a valid, beautiful novelette, and refuted all the K/S homosexual stories floating around. And the thing about it is, it's so true. I could see this story happen, easily. It could happen all too easily. And this gives another facet to the K/S relationship, that they still love each other in the face of whatever misunderstandings their love might bring. Oh, and that last page! What a chiller! What can I say that hasn't been said? When something is the best, how can you say it? Again, words are not enough. I wish I could see the author and tell her how good she is in person. I hope you can print more of her words...[10]
...Now to my principal bone of contention: THE RACK. It was well-written and I say "bravo" to the points raised by Starfleet about the many times both of them violated orders to save each other. Sooner or later, it was bound to happen. But Starfleet's reasoning was flawed - namely, that once they were separated, they would function with their usual efficiency. What about the reactions - the whispers, the secret smirks, the disgusted looks on the part of the crews? Those would still continue on the Enterprise with Kirk, especially since the truth about Spock's "promotion" would be whispered all over the ship within two days. No doubt, Spock's "reputation" would spread to the Avenir's crew; he'd still have that burden along with his other problems of learning to command a new ship. If crew morale and efficiency would be affected by the situation now... it would not suddenly die out with this new promotion. What if they both happened to be present at a future ceremonial function? It also says a lot of negative and stupid things about Starfleet Command. I wonder if anyone there has given any serious thought to the requirements asked of a Captain - that he can't be personally involved with anyone on the ship. Has it occurred to them that a true situation of isolation like that could eventually increase a Captain's emotional burdens to the point that he could no longer command efficiently? Then, they'd be stuck with the hassle of having to replace him with a new person who might not be as good. Big businesses today are taking a look at the "heart-attack syndrome" of top executives, and trying to combat this turnover rate with exercise programs, and counseling programs for those who need it. I wonder if it's going to take four hundred more years after the 22nd century for the upper-echelon of Starfleet Command to realize they may have to take steps other than mere isolation to deal with that dilemma that's characteristic of command - its pressures? Hope they learn something from this tragedy...[11]
...I hated J. Emily Vance for THE RACK at the same time that I was horribly fascinated and compelled to read it over and over again. What a ghastly and obscene manner in which to end - casting two pearls before swine!...[12]
...THE RACK certainly gives pause. My Horsemasters were writing a final exam and I read the story while I was monitoring it. I am sure they were wondering why I was sitting there quietly sobbing. Then ((a friend)) shattering - I mean shattered - me further by saying we are the cause of someone writing a story like that - the theme being so 'popular' (or infamous). It is easy to see only the good side of the K/S relationship and, from that viewpoint, letting the attraction slide to a physical love and see absolutely nothing wrong with it, which there isn't. And, hopefully, by the 23rd century, attitudes would have changed. Personally, in some cases, I don't think they would, I admit to circumstances where it could happen, and I don't agree with Anita Bryant... The story made me sad - and mad. A good sign of a good writer, I think...[13]
...I was a basket case after reading THE RACK. It can't be left like that!...[14]
...And THE RACK - well, I guess I've been hoping for a story that would tackle the possibility from another angle... Who is J. Emily Vance? The story was well-written and sad and very good in how it handled what might be an all-too-real possibility - my only objection is the scene where Spock got propositioned. It 's a bit too cliched and forced - partially because somehow I think that guy ought to have known a little bit about Vulcans - enough to know that if Kirk and Spock were lovers, Spock would be Vulcanly loyal to him - the very idea this guy suggests could get him clobbered!...[15]
...Speaking of THE RACK, it was a premiere piece of writing. Anyone who has ever tried to deny or ignore an ugly, false accusation...must have found it particularly harrowing. I must admit though that I don't completely agree with the ending (even though it packs a powerhouse punch right to the emotions). Despite the overwhelming circumstances and inner turmoil Kirk experiences I just can't picture him giving in to the ultimate defeat that suicide represents. (But then, I realize I am viewing it from my conception of Kirk and every fan and writer views him differently.)...[16]
...THE RACK was very interesting, and I'm happy to hear there's to be a sequel. The story did seem to be somewhat at cross purposes. It became more and more of a love story, to the point where it was essentially pointless that Kirk and Spock weren't lovers... and that Starfleet was really right - they were endangering the Enterprise because of their love for each other... their basic style as well as their friendship leading them to take some unorthodox risks... It was well-written, quite fascinating. Though I don't believe Kirk would be suicidal... HispKysical state on top of all the disillusioning claptrap from Starfleet command did make it somewhat more plausible. I did like it, despite my objections...[17]
I've just finished reading THE RACK... The feelings generated were intense and the theme very (almost too) plausible. People do tend to judge much too quickly and many times incorrectly. If there is something that someone doesn't understand, it must be wrong. It is the ^eVing that prevails. I would like to think that Starfleet would have a more advanced attitude; however, the actions portrayed tend to go along with what I feel would have been the attitude of the aired episodes. The reactions seemed perfectly written. Would imagine K/S to act in the same ways show. My only question - Wouldn't Spock have felt Kirk was really down, and had something in mind when he gave him his Captain's pin and said, "At one time, his command meant a great deal to him ? Would like to think at this point, both would realize that the friendship they shared was the truly important point - the most important part of both their lives - and would have taken the necessary actions to prolong that friendship. Even if they left the service, they could still join science foundation or some sort of like institution. After all, Kirk is an excellent command pilot and Spock an excellent science officer. I'm sure they could find an organization that would be eager to get people of their calibre. Alice Jones' illustrations were magnificent! A good graphic adds so much to the story and brings the feelings out. The last one of Spock in front of Kirk's cabin door - just staring at it, you can feel what Spock is feeling. Great!...[18]
There was something about THE RACK which made me want to never read an S.T. K/S story again. Which is, of course, why I posted my order to FARTHEST STAR for the sequel on my way to work...[19]
I didn't like The Rack, but can recognize that the writing was very good and the characterizations were superb. My only disagreement with the author was the ending. I can accept that Kirk was very hurt and suffering a severe sense of loss and was still recuperating from his wounds. Given all that, I still don°t believe that suicide was a viable option for him. If for no other reason than it would hurt the two people he loved most too much!...[20]
...Now - THE RACK. First of all, l nave to tell you that your telling me the ending didn't diminish the story for me at all. My first reading, my only reaction throughout the whole thing was...rage, I guess...sort of an "Oh, God, how could anyone do such terrible things to them!" It absolutely horrified me that 23rd century people could still react like that - which gives you some idea...of how well it's written; because not once did my mind question the reality or the validity of any of the incidents... The story consumes you with Kirk and Spock's agony and anguish, and also makes you feel a deadly rage at military organizations in general... Military bureaucrats...really are like that! And I could also see all their friends reacting that way, too - especially McCoy. If I were he, I wouldn't have known what to say either. ... K/S reactions were perfect, too - not being horrified or disgusted at what they're being accused of, not passing any moral judgment on homosexuality, or denying its validity for others, but merely being horrified at being falsely accused. Perfect! Now - the reason I will not allow myself to believe that he's really dead at the end, aside from the fact that I don't want him to be and that I don't believe Kirk would suicide, is that the story is crying for a sequel. Maybe even more than one. Also - maybe I missed it, but I don't think it was ever explained just how the rumors got started - and I'd love to know - so I could strangle whoever did it. It is so easy to destroy someone by rumor and innuendo -happens all the time right now. And I guess people won't really change all that much over the next 300 years - they haven't, in the ways that matter, over the last 300 and more... [21]
...Lord, if the future that THE RACK presents is what is in score for our galaxy - I hope that a nuclear holocaust ends it all soon!... A galaxy of bigots! When did we begin the trip backwards? In today's world, in planet Earth, the existance of homosexuality among individuals of consenting age is no longer viewed as stigma, while in ST's galaxy it will be, according to the story. Either that, or Starfleet's behavior allows only for monks - who upon entering the service avow chastity... Although the premise of endangering the ship to save a lover could have been just as true if it had been a heterosexual affair, I guess. That's why I consider the necessity for chastity as the only answer, or its converse, continued promiscuity! Anyhow, it seems more likely that Starfleet would have simply transfered Spock to the other ship because the organization must have the power to do so. Why go to all the trouble and bother when such an expedient answer was at hand? On that premise alone, the story self-destructs. [22]

Sequels by the Original Authors

Responsefics and Riffs

  • Trial by Mariann Hornlein, an alternate version in (Nexus) #1. In it, Kirk is not dead and Spock decides to face court-martial. One interesting note is that this author contacted the authors of 'The Rack' and gotten permission to write this story, yet nowhere in the zine does it explain this; instead it simply states it is a story written as an alternative version, perhaps leaving less-experienced writers, at the time, with the idea that prior permission was not needed.
  • A Different End by Toni Cardinal-Price. It is an alternative to "The Trial" which in turn is an alternative to "The Rack": Kirk & Spock really are lovers, and after the trial are now safe from invasive speculations. In (Nexus) #1
  • A la récherche de l'avenir by Genevieve Lapierre, a very controversial story, written "without permission"

Controversy Regarding an Unauthorized Sequel

It is unclear if the story discussed below is "The Trial" or "A Different End," both stories in (Nexus) #1, or another story entirely, OR perhaps even A la récherche de l'avenir.

In 2006, Catalenamara wrote:
TOS fandom reached something of a tipping point regarding unauthorized sequels after the publication of the death story “The Rack”. Sequels appeared, both authorized and unauthorized. The authors of the original story were so angered by the publication of the unauthorized sequel that they made quite an issue of it. After that point, as far as I recall, far fewer people wrote unauthorized sequels in TOS fandom. [23]
Joan Verba wrote in Boldly Writing:
In 1979, the short story 'The Rack' was the subject of some controversy when a fan penned an 'unauthorized' sequel to the story. The editors wrote a letter in protest which was published in the letterzine Scuttlebutt. 'The Rack' was a response to K/S. In the story, Starfleet Command suspects Kirk and Spock of having an affair, and court-martials them. At the end of the story, Kirk attempts suicide. The authors wrote the story to show what, in their opinion, would 'really' happen if Starfleet suspected, even erroneously, that Kirk and Spock were having an affair. Later, the authors wrote a sequel, 'All the King's Horses, All the King's Men', but another reader wrote a sequel of his own, and this is what the authors of 'The Rack' were protesting. No one... remembers this unauthorized sequel. ' [24]
In 1980, Leslie Fish commented on unauthorized sequels and "The Rack":
As for characters and situations written in fanzines, it's customary and considered good manners to ask the author's permission before writing variations on his/her theme, mainly because fan-lit is strictly nonprofit, and credit is all we have to give. No law requires this, and all that a law-court could give a plagiarized fan was a demand that the plagiarizer apologize in public- I'm not aware of the Scuttlebutt incident that ML Dodge refers to (I#28) but I've seen a similar case in an unauthorized sequel to a Contact story; what the annoyed original author did was write her own sequel, which was considerably better than the unauthorized sequel and which refuted it on every point of the plot. If the Scuttlebutt authors do the same, the Bad Guys will be refuted and fandom will benefit by an artful argument and a good story. [25]

Controversy Regarding A la récherche de l'avenir

A la récherche de l'avenir was a story which caused a lot of discussion about plagiarism, permissions, and shared universes.

A personal statement was printed in Scuttlebutt #16 in 1979 by Bev Volker, April Valentine, Nancy Kippax regarding to an "unauthorized sequel" to their story:
This letter is directed to the editor of the Canadian-based zine, Starbase M.T.L.. Last year, the zine published a story titled "A la Recherche de l'avenir' by Genevieve Lapierre... The word 'avenir' in the title refers to the ship Spock was offered in 'The Rack.' In our story, he turned down that command. However, in the 'Starbase M.T.L.' story, yet another inspired by 'The Rack,' Spock goes on to become the captain of the Avenir. That wouldn't be so bad. There have been other 'take-offs' done on 'The Rack.' having themes and content with which we disagreed. The difference is that the authors of these stories and editors who wanted to print them at least contacted the editors of Contact, wherein 'The Rack' was published, to receive permission. In this case, none of us was contacted. At AmeriCon '78, [the editor] proudly showed us the story, and we were rather upset. We requested that since the story was printed without permission, an apology appear in the next issue of 'M.T.L. saying he hadn't realized that an okay was necessary. He agreed. Now, the so-called apology has arrived. John states that the Lapierre story was submitted late but was too good to leave out of his zine and he didn't have time for the 'protocol' of writing to 'Contact's editors. His editorial goes on to say that since the character the story is built around, Val Kaminksy, played such a small part in 'The Rack,' he thought everything would be all right. John does mention that 'The Rack' authors were upset at the direction taken by the story, but emphatically states that he is apologizing for his 'failure to follow fannish etiquette and not for the content of the story.' Complimentary copies of his zine were given to us with the stated hope that all would now be settled. Well, it isn't. The problem may have arisen due to John's not asking for permission to print the story, but he seems to think that he would have received that permission. He would not have. First, the character of Val Kaminsky WAS of minor importance in 'The Rack,' but he was a character created by J. Emily Vance, and for that reason, NO ONE may develop him or give him a history EXCEPT J. Emily Vance. Secondly, the whole point of 'The Rack' was that Kirk and Spock were not lovers. In the Lapierre story, Spock is having an affair with Val Kaminsky, a gay who made a pass at him in 'The Rack.' Not only did Lapierre tamper with the Vance character, she tampered with Spock as postulated in 'The Rack.' Lapierre has made a mockery of the Kirk/Spock relationship in our zine -- indeed, in all of fan-fiction -- by stating that with Kirk dead, Spock would jump into another man. The third point, though, is the most serious. In the Lapierre story, there is a flashback scene in which the first meeting between Spock and Val is recalled. And there, lines of dialogue DIRECTLY FROM THE RACK HAVE BEEN USED. There is a simple word for this sort of thing. It is called plagiarism... Other creators of universes in fan fiction have been plagued by plagarism and the time for it to stop is NOW!" [26]
A fan, Mary Lou D, commented on "The Rack's" authors' complaints:
And for something completely different! I was considerably amused to see in the final issue of "Scuttlebutt" an indignant denunciation by a set of zine editors, of another zine, which had appropriated a character from one of their stories—used and distorted that character! The complaining zine was one guilty of grossly distorting Mr. Roddenberry's characters, and failed to see the humor of the irony. Look at it as sensitivity training, girls—now you can understand how Gene Roddenberry must feel, and how fans feel when they buy your "Star Trek" zine and find it's nothing of the kind. Sweet revenge—and the bitter bit! [27]

References

  1. Verba, Joan. Boldly Writing. F T L Pubns, March 26, 2003, pg 45
  2. October 7, 2008 comment by klangley56 on LiveJournal. Accessed October 11, 2008.
  3. Nancy Kipax. The Late '70s -- Memories, Parties and Fun posted 19 May 2008. (accessed 9 Jan 2010)
  4. from Karen Halliday's Zinedex
  5. from Stardate: Unknown #4
  6. by Christopher Randolph in Enterprise Incidents #6 (1978) in The Many Faces of Fan Fiction; a portion of this was reprinted twelve years later in Trek Fan's Handbook (1990).
  7. from an undated issue of Star Trek Mail Association
  8. a LoC printed in the second edition of "The Complete Rack"
  9. a LoC printed in the second edition of "The Complete Rack"
  10. a LoC printed in the second edition of "The Complete Rack"
  11. a LoC printed in the second edition of "The Complete Rack"
  12. a LoC printed in the second edition of "The Complete Rack"
  13. a LoC printed in the second edition of "The Complete Rack"
  14. a LoC printed in the second edition of "The Complete Rack"
  15. a LoC printed in the second edition of "The Complete Rack"
  16. a LoC printed in the second edition of "The Complete Rack"
  17. a LoC printed in the second edition of "The Complete Rack"
  18. a LoC printed in the second edition of "The Complete Rack"
  19. a LoC printed in the second edition of "The Complete Rack"
  20. a LoC printed in the second edition of "The Complete Rack"
  21. a LoC printed in the second edition of "The Complete Rack"
  22. a LoC printed in the second edition of "The Complete Rack"
  23. 2006 comments at CI5 during a discussion about unauthorized sequels and Out of the Blue
  24. from Boldly Writing
  25. from Interstat #30
  26. Scuttlebutt #16 contains a personal statement from the authors. Boldly Writing says it was "a statement from the editors of the fanzine Contact, who were upset that someone had written an unauthorized sequel to their story, The Rack... No one I know of, however, remembers this unauthorized sequel.
  27. from Interstat #28 (February 1980)