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Superpowers are the abilities associated with Superheroes.
How superheroes acquire these abilities depends on the characters. DC Comics' Superman was born with his abilities but had to land on Earth and be exposed to the yellow sun, in contrast with the red sun of Krypton. DC Villain Mr. Freeze got his from a damaged cryogenic chamber. The Joker was the victim of a chemical accdident.
By contrast, several Marvel Comics characters gained their powers through encounters with radiation. These include Peter Parker becoming Spider-Man after getting bitten by a radioactive spider, Bruce Banner taking a lethal dose of gamma rays and becoming The Incredible Hulk, and Reed Richards, Sue Storm, Johnny Storm, Ben Grimm, and Victor Von Doom becoming The Fantastic Four and Dr. Doom due to encountering cosmic radiation in space. Captain America acquires his powers via a combination of "serum" and "Vita Rays" (presumably radiation), while in contrast, Bucky Barnes is apparently transformed by a less effective form of the serum only. Pepper Potts gets powers from a fantasy nanotechnology called "Extremis".
Those who have superpowers are sometimes referred to as Powered
Non-Canon (AU) Superpowers
Fans frequently create AU superpower versions of human characters, such as Powered!Darcy (AO3 tag Superhero Darcy Lewis). Or they simply transport the characters -- human, dwarf, hobbit, gem, alien, transformer -- into a [AU] (AO3 tag Alternate Universe - Superheroes/Superpowers).