|See also:||Purity Culture in Fandom, Receipt Blog, Your Fave Is Problematic|
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"Calling out" is to bring public attention to perceived oppressive behavior.
History of Callout Culture
In the Livejournal era, callouts were rare, though not unheard of.
The use of callouts could actually be helpful in the case of actual predators who were known for sexually abusing minors, particularly young girls. One particular case involved a man named fort_kanji, who targeted young white women with sexually explicit e-mails and, upon receiving their contact info, sent them dangerous objects and demanded they masturbate with them. 
In cases such as this, callouts were seen as useful, protecting minors from a potential threat.
Callout posts became most popular on tumblr, due to the ease and speed of signal boosting via reblogs. The use of social justice buzzwords and terms were a surefire way to be noticed, as were accusations of bullying, stalking, harassment, lying, and other perceived sins. Like the fort_kanji example, there were rare cases in which this could be a way to alert younger users of predators. Unfortunately, the false accusations and abuse of signal boosting to ruin someone's reputation over a minor fandom slight overshadowed actual signal boosting.