Archive of Our Own
|Name:||Archive of Our Own|
|Type:||Fanworks Archive, currently only fanfic|
|URL:||http://archiveofourown.org/, AO3_Status, ao3org|
|Click here for related articles on Fanlore.|
The Archive of Our Own aka AO3 is a multi-fandom archive owned and operated by the Organization for Transformative Works. It is currently designed to host text-based fanfiction as well as fandom nonfiction and allows embedding (but not yet hosting) for vids, fanart and podfic. It permits chan, RPF, and other controversial content. The archive's interface is planned to be translated into languages other than English in order to make it more accessible to an international userbase.  It requires that DMCA takedown notices be signed in order to be acted upon. 
The AO3 was first proposed in May 2007 by Astolat. Her post was one of many in LiveJournal fandom reacting to the commercial startup FanLib, which had tried to recruit some fanfic writers for its new fic archive. LiveJournal fandom was unimpressed by the company's desire to profit off of the popularity of fanfic, not to mention a sales pitch to get buy-in from copyright holders saying things like "All the FANLIB action takes place in a highly customized environment that YOU control" (see File:FanLib info.pdf). Astolat's post An Archive Of One's Own set out some guidelines for a fan-controlled archive in opposition to the dystopian future she saw in FanLib: no ads, no restrictions on content, and a commitment to fic as fair use. To realize this vision, the Organization for Transformative Works was created.
Fans had other (often long-standing) reasons for wanting to help build a new multifandom archive. Strikethrough happened a few weeks after astolat's initial post, driving home the point that it was not safe to rely on commercial entities to preserve fan culture. See Beginnings of OTW: 2007-08 Comments for more comments regarding AO3 and OTW's creation.
- First proposed by Astolat on 17 May 2007. 
- A Livejournal community fanarchive was created on 20 May 2007 to coordinate discussion and planning for the creation of the archive.  
- archiveofourown.org domain name registered 30 May 2007 by Rebecca Tushnet. 
- Call for Ruby on Rails tutorial writers on 1 November 2007 
- Call for Ruby on Rails Coders on 8 January 2008. 
- Archive opened for closed beta, in which members of the public were welcome to view and comment, but account creation was limited to Organization for Transformative Works staff and testers on 3 October 2008. 
- Archive entered open beta on 14 November 2009. Users are able to get accounts either via a first-come, first-served invitation queue, or via invitation codes distributed to those who helped with closed beta testing. The speed of new account creation depends on the servers' ability to handle increased load.
- Yuletide 2009 opened on the AO3 on 18 December 2009. All Yuletide participants were given an invitation.   On 24 December 2009, the AO3 had 4648 fandoms, 33,810 works and 4127 users.
- Kudos added circa December 2010.
- New servers added in February 2011 
- Subscriptions to authors added in March 2011
- Database performance issues recurred in September 2011, with administrators blaming them on greatly increased use. As of 5 October 2011, the archive has 7385 fandoms, 228,489 works and 22,974 users.
- As of 31 December 2011, the archive had approximately 8100 fandoms, 275,000 works and 31,000 users.
- Database performance issues recurred in May 2012 when the site reached 1.4 million unique visitors a month, coinciding with Fanfiction.net's 2012 M-rated Purge. The archive began to cache works and stats pages as an immediate measure to decrease server load, and then temporarily suspended tag filtering for the same reason, reinstating them with improvements in November.
- As of 15 July 2012, the archive had 56,203 registered users. As of October 2012, there were 459,655 works and approximately 23,000 fandoms.
- As of 16 July 2013, the Archive had 763,326 works in 12,448 "canonical" fandoms, and over 183,000 registered users.
- The one millionth work was posted on 15 February 2014.
- The archive has reached two million fanworks as of 20 December 2015.
AO3 is a project of the Organization for Transformative Works. Many OTW committees are responsible for aspects of the project:
- Accessibility, Design & Technology (AD&T) and their three subcommittees of Design, Coders, and Testers train AD&T volunteers, design and develop software features, and write and test the code for new features and bug fixes.
- Systems maintains the servers and infrastructure AO3 runs on.
- Support answers user help requests, bug reports and feedback submitted via the form on AO3 and forwards abuse reports to the Abuse Committee.
- Tag Wrangling organises and maintains the AO3 user-created tags for Fandoms, Characters, Relationships and Additional (freeform) categories.
- Content Policy is responsible for site content policy and TOS updates in conjunction with Legal.
- Translation works to translate news posts and work on the new site translations feature in conjunction with ADT.
- Internationalization and Outreach works to improve support and visibility for international and underrepresented fandoms on the archive.
- Open Doors helps maintainers of other archives to import their content to AO3.
- Vidding works on integrating vids into AO3.
- Communications coordinates newsletters and blog posts on the OTW site and mirrors.
- Volunteers & Recruiting (VolCom) recruits and looks after volunteers and manages the internal wiki and access to various tools.
- Development and Membership and Finance fundraise and pay for AO3 hosting and servers.
- The Board of Directors oversees the Committees. 
- Collections and subcollections can be stored on the Archive - Yuletide is there, as well as several other big challenges, and more are gradually moving as new features are introduced.
- The tag system and tag wrangler team. (even inspired fanfic, see also Wrangulator)
- Built-in bookmarking, with the ability to add reader tags, label a bookmark as a rec, and no limit on the number of bookmarks or recs.
- The ability to lock a fanwork to registered Archive users only, instead of posting it publicly.
- Options to view either chapter-by-chapter or the whole work at once.
- Separate fanworks can be linked as a series.
- An easy way for creators to orphan works (disassociate their name from a work), providing a reader-friendly alternative to completely deleting fanworks.
- A clear, minimal and enforceable warnings policy, along with the ability to add extra warnings as additional tags.
- One-click download of stories in a variety of formats: PDF, HTML, ePub, and Mobi.
- The "Kudos" button, a fast, simple, possibly threshold-lowering way for readers to express appreciation for a work.
The Archive has an innovative system for managing fandoms and other tags that allows uploaders to enter all manner of freeform tags while "tag wranglers" organize and link them so that readers can browse or search. zvi wrote a noteworthy post explaining it. 
The AO3 tagging system (and the related search and filtering problems) have not been all joy for all users. See AO3 Tagging Policy Debate for more information on criticism and discussion of AO3's tagging system.
In August 2013, the percentage of fanworks by relationship category on the AO3 was: 50% M/M, 26% Gen, 22% F/M, 5% F/F, 4% Multi, 2% Other. See more AO3 statistics from destinationtoast  and centrumlumina.
In October 2014, the overwhelming majority of works posted on AO3 was fanfiction, with the percentages for other work types being: 0.25% fanvids, 0.71% fanart, 0.17% meta (meta nonfiction and fanfiction), and 0.55% podfic.
Fans doing statistical analysis of fanworks frequently use AO3 data.
A Tiny Peek into History
For much more, see Beginnings of OTW: 2007-08 Comments.
Below are some anecdotal comments from An Archive Of One's Own (post by astolat) which show challenges, enthusiasm, and eventual growing pains of getting this project off the ground. See An Archive Of One's Own (post by astolat)/Comments for many, many more.
- "... I would say that much of the reason that fanfic.net is a badfic haven is because the interfaces and design are bad and not satisfying for the picky readers that most of us are, once we get through the first rush of "omg my fandom!" I know that when ff.net was first launched, I wasn't inherently avoiding it; I avoided it because it was just terrible to use. I *do* think that in order to be successful, an archive has to be someplace where you yourself want to live -- it has to be a place where you want to read, or else you are not going to bother posting there, and that if you make a site that the most demanding readers are satisfied with, that is kind of the key. For instance, I feel that LJ has beaten out the fandom-specific central archives because it has MAJOR advantages for anyone who is multifannish or social, despite the lack of searching capabilities. I don't want to try and duplicate the effort of LJ, but I think something like the "post here AND to LJ at once" tool would be a great way to keep people posting to the archive because it would have zero cost (possibly negative cost if you also add in automatic lj community posting) for someone posting a story to LJ." from astolat, May 17, 2007
- "[Live Journal] is also lousy for finding fics and authors in a new fandom. Yes, there are communities, but they don't always have names that would enable someone to find them on their own, and I for one have never managed to get into a new fandom that included authors I already knew from a previous one, which means having no one to point those communities out. In general, the loss of archives (and mailing lists, for that matter) in favor of LJ has made my fannish life more difficult. A quality panfandom archive would be a big help." from few, May 17, 2007
- "Yes, I think locking is a very good option to allow (and also google-blocking) on an individual user basis, so the archive lets different people manage their own comfort level. The problem with adding vids (other than vids as links -- which I think would be brilliant) -- is the massive bandwidth cost, and the bigger questions of legality. from astolat, May 17, 2007
- "In my mind, this doesn't sound like reiterating LiveJournal. I'm one of the folks who almost never posts outside of LiveJournal anymore but could definitely go for something like this--it's combining all the best features of archiving and LJ at once. It wouldn't just be the search feature that would make things more user-friendly; it would be the tiers of organization that would appeal to me. As a panfandom reader using LiveJournal is just a pain in my ass, but I do it because there isn't really another option. More than that, if there was an option for site-wide tag searches, that would integrate a lot of the best features of del.icio.us. I'm having a hard time seeing any downsides to it other than the 'getting off the ground' phase where people ask themselves 'Ugh, do I really want to go back and re-post all my fanfiction here?' Because that would the major hump to get over, I think, in regards to converting some folks to this new system. Or maybe I should say to converting me. *g*" -- tracendenza, May 18, 2007
- "My feeling is the gatekeeping needed to keep out badfic costs more than it is worth. I think if you provide filtering mechanisms that let people find manageable lists of stories they are really interested in (narrowing down by fandom, pairing, category, particular features), and sort them by (admittedly imperfect) criteria like #comments/recs/hits, while ALSO providing mechanisms to give exposure and encouragement to new writers so those imperfect measures don't bury new people, that really, any quantity of badfic can be managed. Also, frankly, I suspect that the presence of higher quality fanfic as examples within the archive would all on its own help badfic/newbie writers improve rapidly. The problem with ff.net is there are no real mechanisms for winnowing out badfic." -- astolat, May 17, 2007
Too Many Eggs in One Basket
Issues with AO3
Dislike of Various Features
Don't Like Archives
- "... trolling archives for fic is about the last way I want to find reading material. I'd much rather read from recs or delicious or my flist. 
Lack of a Way to Rate Fanworks
- "The main problem with such mass run sites is that there is no way to determine what is good writing and what isn't. A search on the site isn't going to help me figure that out and their rating system isn't either. Rating systems have been around nearly as long as their have been archives." 
Doesn't Host Things Other Than Fiction
Too Western-Media Centered
Owned by Fans
Praise for Various Features
- AO3 Fun Facts by elz
- on browsing & reading on AO3 by xparrot
- cyborganize: IV/3/. Archive Wars: FanLib vs. OTW, Archived version, November 27, 2009
- Beginnings of OTW: 2007-08 Comments
- Timeline of Organization for Transformative Works
- 2013 Roadmap under Version 0.10 section
- Terms Of Service accessed 20 October 2008
- An Archive Of One's Own, livejournal post.
- otw_news Community Profile accessed 20 October 2008
- First call for volunteers, Livejournal Post, accessed 20 October 2008
- whois look up 20 October 2008
- Volunteer Search: Tutorial Makers , accessed 20 October 2008
- Volunteer Search: Volunteer Ruby Coder, accessed 20 October 2008
- A first look at the Archive Of Our Own!, Naomi Novik, blog post, accessed 20 October 2008
- Announcing Open Beta!, blog post, accessed 13 November 2009
- Release Notes for Release 0.7.2, AO3 news post, accessed 24 December 2009
- Yuletide treasure on the AO3!, blog post, accessed 24 December 2009
- Impending Archive downtime: new server installation, AO3 news post, accessed 5 February 2011
- AO3 news: Site performance issues (AO3, why the sad face?) (29 September 2011) (accessed 5 October 2011)
- 2011 Year in Review! (31 December 2011) (accessed 28 November 2012)
- AO3 performance issues (01 June 2012) (accessed 28 November 2012)
- My, how we've grown! A few AO3 stats (16 July 2012) (accessed 28 November 2012)
- Update on AO3 performance issues (11 June 2012) (accessed 28 November 2012)
- From FF.net to AO3 - some frequently asked questions (21 June 2012) (accessed 28 November 2012)
- Release Notes 0.8.17 (9 June 2012) (accessed 28 November 2012)
- AO3 performance and growth: some details (15 July 2012) (accessed 28 November 2012)
- Disabling filters: information and search tips (12 June 2012) (accessed 28 November 2012)
- Release 0.9.2: The Return of the Filters (8 November 2012) (accessed 28 November 2012)
- AO3 accounts and invitations (15 July 2012) (accessed 28 November 2012)
- Count ALL the tags! (17 October 2012) (accessed 28 November 2012)
- taken from front page (accessed 16 July 2013)
- AO3 Reaches 1 Million Fanworks (15 February 2014)
- Thanks a million...actually, make that two!, Archived version, posted to AO3_News 20 December 2015.
- OTW list of Committees
- Tags (Wuzzles) explained, AO3 news post, accessed 24 December 2009
- centrumlumina. Stage 7: Panfandom Overview, posted to Tumblr on 17 August 2013. (Accessed 11 May 2014)
- comment by kyuuketsukirui at My two cents on Fanlib as a fanfic reader; Archive in response to the FanLib proposal, May 21, 2007
- My two cents on Fanlib as a fanfic reader; Archive, post by midnightbex, May 21, 2007