|See also:||anime, novelization, tie-in, bookverse, movieverse, comicsverse|
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An adaptation is the transformation of a source text into another medium. The most common kind of adaptation is from print into audio-visual text, like movie adaptations of novels. However, adaptations span media -- from musical adaptations of popular anime to movie reworkings of video games, anything goes.
Film Adaptations of Novels
It has been noted, e.g. in the Harry Potter fandom and Twilight fandom, that adaptations draw in new fans, who may be enticed by familiar or attractive actors, or may relate better to a visual experience than a written one.
In some fandoms, film adaptations are considered so similar to their print sources or so dependent on them that it is rare in those fandoms to distinguish between fans of the print source and fans of the film. When print and film versions of a story differ in some details, there is often debate over whether details from the film version should be considered canon, especially when they contradict the original print version. Separate fandoms may develop, often with some conflict between "bookverse" and "movieverse" fans.
Films made from comics often differ substantially from their print sources, since any given comic source is likely to be so lengthy that its film adaptation must needs compress or discard or in other ways alter the canon. As a result, most comics which have been adapted to film have more than one fandom, e.g. X-Men comics vs. X-Men Movieverse fandoms.
Adaptations of Manga
Many anime series are adaptations of manga. Sometimes the adaptations are very close to the originals, but some are extremely different. Often an anime starts running soon after the manga gains popularity and thus will soon run out of material to animate.
Once that happens there are two possible choices. The first is to stop the main arc and insert a filler arc, eventually returning to the main story once more manga chapters have been published (this is common with shounen series such as Bleach and Naruto). The other method is to continue on and make up material, possibly with some vague input from the creator of the manga. This usually results in a vastly different story, due to the fact that the anime writers could not predict plot twists for the manga. Fullmetal Alchemist is an example of this type of adaptation; the anime and manga are different in more ways than they are similar.
Another choice is to do a limited-run anime (either one season of 13 episodes, or a direct-to-video series or film) covering only the beginning of the story. Angel Sanctuary is an example of a popular manga whose anime only covers a small part of the series.
Manga are also often adapted to live-action TV series. Because Japanese shows run for a fixed length (10-13 episodes), these adaptations are usually very different from the manga they were based on.